Introductory Bambara Course

All the credit for this book ″Kalanden ka Gafe” goes to the Peace Corps. It has been modified and reformatted here to appeal to a wider audience:

Bamako

Dogon Cliffs of Bandiagara

Great mosque of djenné

Table 1. BAMBARA List of Communicative Tasks
COMMUNICATIVE TASK OBJECTIVES VOCABULARY GRAMMAR

  • Greeting

  • Introducing oneself

  • Saying goodbye

  • Greet alone in appropriate ways according to the different moments of the day, in the community.

  • Tell with precision your first name, his family name and where he/she comes from.

  • Use, at least, three types of questions to know the name of some objects in a real situation.

  • Expressions related to the situation

  • Jobs

  • Titles

  • Parenthood expressions

  • Expressions for introducing

  • Expressions for leave taking

  • To be (bε) (ye… ye) at the present tense

  • Personal pronouns

  • Interrogative words: min? jon? jumεn?

  • Transitive, reflexive and intransitive verbs at the present tense

  • The postposition la

  • Asking the world for something

  • Ask, at least, three types of questions to find out the name and the use of five different objects in a real situation.

  • Identify, at least, five different objects in your sector.

  • Tell the use of, at least, five different objects in your community.

  • Use three expressions of possession.

  • Usual expressions for identifying

  • Classic objects

  • Numbers

  • The possessive adjective ka

  • The possessive pronoun ta

  • The emphatic personal pronoun

  • The emphatic de

  • Talking about the family

  • Cite six family relationships in your host family.

  • Tell exactly the profession of three family members and where they live.

  • Tell the social status and the age of, at least, three family members in the target language.

  • Parenthood terms

  • Expressions such as to be alive, dead, married, old, single, etc.

  • To have (fε)

  • How much/many joli?

  • Shopping

  • Use efficiently the local money in a Malian market.

  • Buy two or three items in a market or a shop.

  • Currency

  • Items of the market, in the shops

  • Bargaining expressions

  • Transitive, reflexive and intransitive verbs at the pass tense

  • Asking/Giving directions

  • Locate, at least, two places.

  • Use, at least, three expressions to ask and give directions.

  • Name of place

  • Terms of locating and giving direction

  • Cardinal points

  • Ordinal numbers

  • The Imperative

  • Describe a person, an object and a place

  • Name, at least, ten (10) parts of human body.

  • Describe a person by pointing out, at least, five physical and five moral traits.

  • Describe, in five correct sentences, your training site.

  • Describe an object by giving two or three characteristics.

  • Cite, at least, five common sicknesses in Mali.

  • Body parts

  • Adjectives describing morally and physically

  • Colors

  • Expressions for describing

  • The ka auxiliary

  • Qualifying adjectives + man suffix

  • The passive voice with the len/nen suffix

  • Describe one’s mental and physical state

  • Ask, at least, one accurate question to get information about someone’s physical state.

  • Formulate two or three blessings to a sick person.

  • Diseases

  • Expressions for feelings, emotions and desires

  • Expressions for blessings

  • The Future tense

  • The Imperfect tense

  • Talking about daily activities

  • Cite, at least, four daily activities of a man and four of a woman according to the different periods of the day.

  • Cite five activities of your own.

  • Cite, at least, five daily or seasonal activities according to the gender, and the age.

  • Tell your daily timetable to your host family.

  • The name of the periods of the day

  • Verbs linked to daily activities

  • Expressions linked to activities

  • The Hypothetical future with mana

  • The Conditional tense

  • Talking about traveling

  • Cite the three most used transportation means in Mali.

  • Ask three appropriate questions to get informed about the means, the fare and the schedule of transportation regarding your trip, in a real situation.

  • Use three appropriate expressions to wish welcome or safe trip to a traveler.

  • Means of transportation

  • Travel expressions

  • Blessings expressions

  • Verb expressing habit (ka deli ka) at the present tense, the past tense and the Imperfect tense

  • Talking about meals

  • Cite, at least, five Malian meals.

  • Explain, at least, one recipe to someone.

  • Enumerate four behaviors when eating in Mali and compare them to the American ones.

  • Name of dishes, utensils, ingredients, beverages

  • Meals expressions

  • The use of kε

  • Talking about feasts and leisure

  • Cite three religious and three traditional feasts in Mali.

  • Name, at least, three leisure time activities in your community and describe one of them.

  • Name of religious and traditional feasts

  • name of musical instruments

  • The passive voice

  • Accept or decline an invitation

  • Use, at least, three expressions to invite someone in a real situation.

  • Use appropriately three expressions to accept or decline an invitation.

  • Expressions to invite someone

  • Expressions to accept an invitation

  • Expression to decline an invitation

  • Verbs expressing desire and obligation at the present tense, the past tense and the Imperfect tense

  • Asking for help

  • Use three appropriate expressions to ask for or decline a proposal of help in a given situation.

  • Expressions and words for soliciting, proposing, accepting or politely declining help

  • Expressions for giving instructions to an employee

  • Review of the tenses

  • Talking about weather

  • Cite three characteristics of the main seasons in Mali.

  • Cite, at least, two activities related to the seasons, according to gender.

  • Name of seasons, months

  • Characteristics of each season

  • Activities during each season

  • Review of the tenses

  • Talking about one’s skills

  • Explain in detail your work to another person.

  • Explain in detail one specific activity related to your work.

  • crafts

  • Professions

  • Terms of describing skills

  • The action nouns

  • The agentive nouns

* Grammatical Notes

  • Use proper prefixes and suffixes to form new words and expressions.

  • Words and expressions linked to grammatical notes

  • The suffix lan

  • The suffix ntan

  • The suffix ta

  • The suffix bali

  • The suffix ka

  • The prefix la

* Translations

  • Use the items alone.

  • Dialogs

  • Texts

  • Use of proverbs in daily communication

* Stories

  • Introductory beginners course into culture by stories

  • Expressions found through stories and legends

  • Use of stories and proverbs in practice

FOLI | MƆGƆ ƝƐ JIRA MƆGƆ WƐRƐ LA | FOLI BILA

GREETING | INTRODUCING ONESELF | SAYING GOODBYE

Communicative Task:

Objectives:

  1. Greet alone in appropriate ways according to the different times of the day.

  2. Tell with precision your first name, family name and where you come from.

  3. Use at least three expressions to say goodbye in a real situation.

  4. Use, at least, three types of questions to know the name of some objects in a real situation.

pg9
Figure 1. Sali and Amadu: Guess what they are saying?

Cultural Notes:

  • Greeting is very important in Bambara. The one(s) who arrive(s) initiate(s) the greeting.

  • Never greet people in the morning before washing the face.

  • The family name is very significant because it allows you to identify the joking cousins, the ethnic group and the origin of the identified person.

  • Always announce where you are going and when you will probably be back.

  • The host should always accompany the visitor to the gate.

THE IMPORTANCE OF GREETINGS

In Africa, greetings and salutations are extremely important to people. For the American, who is used to saying nothing more than “ hi ” and then moving on, this may be hard to get used to. The Bambara people and their language presente no exception to this generalization. The exchanges presented to you in this and the following lessons represent only a beginning upon which you can build up your inventory of salutations and eventually perfect the art of greeting in the Bambara world. When two good friends meet, the greetings may last as long as five minutes, and even longer if they haven’t seen each other for a long time. Greetings are a way of showing the respect that people have for each other. Greetings always involve at least one handshake and usually involve a series of handshakings of varying durations. You will often see the men putting their hands to their chests after each handshake - part of showing respect. The greetings should always be begun with a handshake, and leavetaking will also require one handshake.

When you pass people that you know in the street, it is best to stop and go through at least a short greeting exchange with them. Whatever your dealings may be with various Malian people, it is important to start off your conversation or your business with the greetings. You should never be in so much of a hurry that you don’t have time to greet someone - it doesn’t pay.

In a typical greeting dialogue, one person usually starts out and remains the initiator for several exchanges while the other person responds to the various greetings and questions. When that series is completed, then the roles switch and the initiator becomes the answerer for several exchanges.

TIMES OF DAY

For greetings and for referring to the times of the day, the Bambara language makes four different divisions of the day:

  1. the morning (sɔgɔma)

  2. the heat of the day - around noon (tile tere)

  3. the afternoon (wula) and

  4. the evening and night (su)

There is a greeting for each of these divisions of the day. The greeting i ni sɔgɔma would be literally translated as meaning “ you and the morning “, but really corresponds with the English “ Good morning “and the French “bonjour “.

GREETING PATTERNS

The following diagrams are designed to represent the various possibilities for use of the basic greeting patterns presented in this lesson. Only one item is to be selected at a time from boxes containing several listed items. Use these to check out the different possibilities and to make up new ones. The order of the diagrams represents an acceptable ordering of the greetings.

Greetings Responses

i

ni

sɔgɔma

nba (male)

aw

tile tere

nse (female)

(name)

wula

su

i

ka

kεnε (wa) ?

tɔɔrɔ (si)

n na

somɔgɔw

t’

u la

i cε /muso

t’

a la

i

di?

n

hεrε la

hεrε

dɔrɔn

The words nba and nse are used extensively in response to various greetings. Trying to translate them is useless, since we don’t have their equivalents in English. Essentially they are signs of acknowledgement indicating acceptance of the greeting and recognition of the other person. Nba is the male response and nse is the female response.

DIALOG

Amadu

I ni sɔgɔma, n balimamuso!

Sali

Nse i ni sɔgɔma, n balimakε! balimancɛ Hεrε sira?

Amadu

Hεrε dɔrɔn! I ka kεnε?

Sali

Tɔɔrɔ tε! I tɔgɔ?

Amadu

N tɔgɔ Amadu Jara. E dun ile do?

Sali

N tɔgɔ Sali Tarawele. I Jara!

Amadu

Nba! Tarawele muso, i bε bɔ min?

Sali

N bε bɔ Segu. Jarakε, i fana bε bɔ Segu?

Amadu

Eh, ayi! N bε bɔ yan.

Sali

O ka ɲi! Ala ka tile hεrε caya!

Amadu

Amiina! K’an b’u fo! b’o fo!

Sali

U n’a mεn! O bena mɛn!

  • Greeting facilitates the integration and guarantees respect, personal and material security in the community.

  • The joking cousin plays the role of an icebreaker and a social stabilizer between Malian communities.

VOCABULARY

Table 2. Vocubulary
i ka kεnε?

how are you?

baasi tε

I’m fine

tana tε?

are you fine?

x ka kεnε

x is healthy (fine)

tɔɔrɔ t’u la

they’re fine

x bε di?

how are x?

a bε ten

it’s so so

hεrε dɔrɔn

peace only (fine)

hεrε tilenna? terena

how was your day?

x dun? do

and x? (what about x)? (a form of greeting)

tɔgɔ

name

bangebaaw

parents

ba

mother

dɔgɔ

younger sibling

muso

wife/woman

tericε

male friend

kalanden

student

kuntigi

chief

jamana

country

dugu

city

Ameriki

America

ka bɔ

to come from

x filε

here’s x

jumεn?

which?, what?

jon don? jon lo/ne?

who is it?

nin ye x ye

this is x

lakɔli

school

kalanso

classroom

dumunikεyɔrɔ

restaurant, eating place.

ka taa taga

to go

ka sunɔgɔ

to sleep

ka x mεn

to hear x

ka x kun bεn

to meet x

k’i lafiɲε

to rest

k’i ko

to wash oneself.

k’i yaala

to take a walk

tɔɔrɔ tε

I’m fine

tɔɔrɔ si tε

no problem at all

tana tε

I’m fine

tɔɔrɔ t’a la

he/she’s fine

i bε di?

how are you?

a bε di?

how is it?

hεrε bε?

is there peace? (How are you?)

hεrε sira?

how was your night?

jamu duman juman?

what’s your last name?

i + family name

acknowledging your family name

jamu

last name

fa

father

kɔrɔ

older sibling

husband/man

teri

friend

terimuso

female friend

karamɔgɔ

teacher

ɲεmɔgɔ

leader

jamanatigi

president

dugutigi

chief of village

Farafinna

Africa x sigilen don le/lo + place x is settled in…​ ( live )

min?

where?

jon?

who?

x don le/lo

it’s x

butigi

shop

dɔkɔtɔrɔso

hospital

ka na

to come

ka x fo

to greet x

ka wuli

to get up

ka x caya

to increase x

k’i da

to lay down

k’i miiri

to think

k’i sigi

to sit down

k’i ɲεnajε ɲanagwɛ

to have fun.

COMMON EXPRESSIONS

To take leave of someone at different moments of the day: usually there is a leave taking expression followed by the answer.

sunɔgɔ bε n na

I am sleepy.

n sεgεnnen don le/lo

I am tired.

n taara

I am leaving

kelen!

alreadr

k’an b’u fo

Say we greet them; tell them hello

u n’a mεn o bena mɛn

they will hear it

k’an b’a fo

Say we greet him/her a n’a mεn: a bena mɛn: She/he will hear it.

DUGAW / Blessings

k’an sɔɔni

See you soon

ka su hεrε (caya)

good night.

k’an bεn

see you.

k’an kelen kelen wuli

May we get up one by one (Good night)

ka segin n’i ɲuman ye

May you come back safe.

Ala ka tile hεrε caya

May god increase the peace of the day (Have a nice day)

ka dugu ɲuman jε

good night.

k’an si (hεrε la)

May we spend the night in peace

ka taa ni ka segin nɔgɔya

Have a nice trip

amiina

Amen.

SOME TIME EXPRESSIONS

sɔgɔma/sɔgɔmada fε

In the morning

wula fε

In the afternoon (15h)

sɔɔni

Soon

sinin

Tomorrow

tile fε/tilegan fε

In the afternoon (12h)

sufε

In the evening

kɔfε

Later

SUPPLEMENTARY VOCABULARY

hakεto

please

basi tε

no problem

n m’a faamu

I did not understand it

segin a kan

repeat it

hakε t’i la

you are excused

i ko di?

what did you say?

n m’a mεn

I did not hear it

a fɔ tuguni

say it again

GRAMMAR THE PRESENT TENSE:

Translations for “ to be “

As will become apparent to you, there are a number of forms in Bambara that translate the English verb “ to be. “ In this lesson we have been briefly exposed to two of these.

  1. bε in the sentence hεrε bε: “ There is happiness.“

    tε in the sentence tɔɔrɔ tε: “ There is no trouble.“

    This form is used to express existence, location, and state. The negative of this form is indicated by the word tε, as in the second example above. In example 2-, this form is used for expressing existence. In the following two examples from this lesson, the same form is essentially used for location.

  2. ka in the question: i ka kεnε (wa)? “ How are you? “

    This form is used for what we will refer to as adjectives. Literally translated, the question corresponds to “ are you healthy? “ or “ are you well? “ in English, but it is used like the English “ How are you? “ or the French. Remember that ka is the sign of this form and that kεnε meaning “ healthy “ is an adjective. Adjectives will be more closely examined in Communicative Task: Describing a person, an object, a place.

  3. To describe somebody or something in order to translate the English to be, ye…​ ye is used.

John ye kalanden ye.

John is a student.

New-York ye ameriki dugu ye.

N.Y. is an American city.

Mali ye jamana ye.

Mali is a country.

  1. The descriptive adjective is placed between the two ye.

  2. The negative form is constructed as follows:

tε…​ ye

John tε karamɔgɔ ye.

John isn’t a teacher.

Los Angeles tε jamana ye.

L.A. isn’t a country.

Transitive verbs:

I bε mun kalan?

What do you study?

N bε Bamanankan kalan.

I study Bambara.

bε/tε is the auxiliary element for the present in Bambara.

In Bambara, the direct object occurs before the verb.

  1. ka __ kalan

  2. ka __ dun

  3. ka __ sεbεn

  4. ka __ tobi

  5. ka __ fɔ

  6. ka __ wele

  7. ka __ fo

Affirmative form: Negative form:

Subj + bε + Direct Object + V

Subj + tε + Direct Object + V

N bε Bamanankan kalan.

N tε Bamanankan mεn kɔsεbε.

I study Bambara

I don’t speak Bambara very well.

Interrogative form:

Subj + bε + Direct Object + V (wa)?

Subj + tε + Direct Object + V (wa)?

I bε Tubabukan mεn wa?

Aw tε bamanankan fɔ?

Do you (hear)/undertand/speak French?

You don’t speak Bambara?

Reflexive verbs:

Reflexive verbs or pronominal verbs always have an object pronoun that refers to the same person as the subject. The object pronoun occurs before the verb.

N bε n ko. I wash myself
But in Bambara, the third person object noun can be i in reflexive constructions.

A bε a sigi = A b’i sigi.

He sits down.

Karamɔgɔ t’i sigi kalanso kɔnɔ.

The teacher doesn’t sit down in the classroom.

k’i ko

k’i da

k’i sigi

k’i lafiɲε

k’i yaala

k’i ɲεnajε

Affirmative form: Negative form:

Suj + bε + Pron + V

Suj + tε + Pron + V

N bε n ko sɔgɔma ni sufε.

N tε n da joona sufε.

Interrogative form: ---

Suj + bε + Pron + V (wa)?

Suj + tε + Pron + V (wa)?

I b’i ko sɔgɔma ni wula fε (wa)?

Aw t’aw da joona sufε?

The reflexive pronoun always immediately precedes the reflexive verb in the infinitive:

N bε taa n yaala.

I am going to take a walk.

Aw bε taa aw ɲεnajε.

You are going to amuse yourself.

Intransitive verbs:

I bε bɔ min?

Where are you from?

N bε bɔ Ameriki.

I come from Amerika.

I bε taa min?

Where are you going?

N bε taa sugu la.

I am going to the market.

In Bambara, the indirect object (object + postposition) occurs after the verb.

ka bɔ

ka taa

ka segin

ka kuma

ka sunɔgɔ

ka wuli

ka yaala

Affirmative form: Negative form: sm

Suj + bε + V + indirect Obj + postp sm

Suj + tε + V + indirect Obj +postp

Sali bε taa sugu la.

Sali tε segin joona so.

Interrogative form: sm

Suj + bε + V + indirect Obj + postp (wa)? sm

Suj + tε + V + indirect Obj +postp (wa)?

Amadu bε kuma kalandenw fε wa?

I ba tε taa sugu la don le/lo go don?

The verb kε

The verb kε has many meanings: to do, cause, happen, occur. Here, it is used as a transitive verb, meaning “do”.

ka kalan kε (ka kalankε)

to do studying (to study)

ka baara kε (ka baarakε)

to do work (to work)

In the above two examples kalan is a noun meaning “studying” and baara is a noun meaning “work”. Both are direct objects of the verb kε.
Affirmative form: Negative form: sm

Suj + bε + Vkε + Obj + postp sm

Suj + tε + Vkε + Obj + postp

N bε baarakε kɔridelapε la

U tε sεnεkε don le/lo go don.

Interrogative form: sm

Suj + bε + Vkε + Obj + postp (wa)? sm

Suj + tε + Vkε + Obj + postp (wa)?

A bε barokε a somɔgɔw fε su o su wa?

I tε sεbεnnikε kalanso kɔnɔ?

The verb ko

I ko mun? What do you say?

N ko, n bε taa so.

I say, I am going home.

The verb ko that appaeared once in these sentences means “to say”. It is a defective verb (one wich does not have all tenses) very frequently used in Bambara. It does not take any auxiliary elements in Present tense.

The postposition “la”

La is a preposition used for a place. It comes always after the place in the sentence. Therefore, it is called a postposition.

S + bε + Verb + Place + la

N bε taa lakɔli la. A bε kalankε University la.

La becomes na after nasal sounds.

An bi taa ɲεgεn na.

La is not used after so (specific place)

N bε taa so.

La is not used with geographical names

(except for Mali).
  • An bε bɔ Ameriki.

  • U tε taa Bamako.

  • A bε bɔ New-York.

  • But: U bε na Mali la.

EXERCISES

Write the possible answers:

  1. I ni sɔgɔma

  2. I ka kεnε?

  3. I bε di?

  4. Hεrε bε?

  5. Somɔgɔw bε di?

  6. I fa n’i ba bε di?

  7. Hεrε sira?

Create a conversation between Amadu and Bakari.

Bakari:

Amadu:

Bakari:

Match the words in A with those in B.

  • A

    1. n bε taa

    2. lakɔli

    3. k’an b’u fo

    4. amiina

    5. u n’a mεn

    6. ka tile hεrε caya

    7. k’an sɔɔni

    8. k’an bεn

  • B

    1. amen

    2. see you

    3. they will hear it

    4. I leave

    5. have a nice day

    6. school

    7. see you soon

    8. tell them hello

  1. Greet at least two to three persons you meet.

  2. Observe their acts and gestures.

  3. Get informed on their identity and where they are from.

  4. Use at least three expressions to take a leave in this real situation.

  5. Note down new expressions.

FƐNW TƆGƆ ƝININKALI

ASKING THE WORD FOR SOMETHING

Communicative Task:

Objectives:

  1. Ask, at least, three types of questions to find out the name and the use of five different objects in a real situation.

  2. identify, at least, five different objects in your sector.

  3. tell the use of, at least, five different objects in your community.

  4. use three expressions of possession.

Always greet people before asking questions.

VOCABULARY

Table 3. Vocabulary
kalanso

classroom

kulisi

shorts

saki (bɔrɔ)

bag

lakεrε

chalk

so

house

palan (shiyo)

bucket

biki

pen

furalan

broom

dilan (dalan)

bed gafe (liburu/kitabu)book

dara

bed sheet

sange (sanke)

mosquito net

kεsu

trunk

te (dute)

tea

butiki

shop

alimεti

matches

samara

shoes

fifalan

fan

ka furannikε

to sweep

ka x fifa

to fan x

ka x don

to wear x

ka x ta

to take x ka x don le/lo y kɔnɔ/la to put x(solid) in y

ka x sεbεn

to write x

ka x faga

to put off (light)

ka x (da) yεlε

to open x

ka x ɲininka

to ask x

ka x ɲεfɔ

to explain x

k’i biri ni x ye

to cover oneself with x

duloki

shirt

tabulo

chalkboard

segi

basket

taji (pitɔrɔli)

kerosene

sεsi (sigilan)

chair

tɔrɔsi

flash light

dεbεn

mat

kaye

copy book

birifini

blanket

li

bed

kiriyon

pencil

pili

battery

safinε

soap

sukaro

sugar

finfin (saribon)

charcoal

fini

cloth

salidaga

kettle

lanpan

kerosene lamp

ka x furan

to sweep x

ka x ko

to wash ka x mεnε/ka x tugu to light

ka x kε y kɔnɔ/la

to put x(liquid) in y

ka x siri

to tie x/to fasten x

k’i fifa

to fan one self

ka x tigε

to cut x

ka x (da) tugu

to close x / to shut x

ka x jaabi

to answer x

ka x lajε

to look at x/to watch x

COMMON EXPRESSIONS

a tɔgɔ?

what is its name?

nin tɔgɔ?

what is the name of this?

nin bε fɔ cogodi bamanankan na?

how do you say this in Bambara?

nin kɔrɔ?

what is the meaning of this?

nin bε wele cogodi?

how do you call this?

n m’a faamu

I didn’t undersdand it

a fɔ tuguni

say it again.

segin a kan

repeat it ( again )

i ko di?/i ko mun?/i ye mun fɔ?

what did you say?

n m’a mεn

I didn’t hear it

i y’a mεn wa?

did you hear it?

i y’a faamu?

did you understand it?

x don

it is x

x tε

it is not x

nin lajε

look at this/watch this

mun don?

what is it?

jɔn don?

who is it?

nin ye mun ye?

what is that?

nin ye jɔn ye?

who is this?

nin ye x ye

this is x / that is x

nin tε x ye

this is not x

fεn jumεn?

what (thing)?

a fɔ dɔɔni dɔɔni

say it slowly

a fɔ ka pεrεn

say it loudly

ɲininkali bε n fε

I have a question

GRAMMAR The possessive case:

The possessive adjective: The Bambara word “ka“ translates the possessive adjectives my, your, his, her, its, our, your, their in English.

Table 4. 1
* S
ka + obj. Subj ‘s obj.

* N

ka

saki

my bag.

* John

ka

so

John‘s house

* U

ka

kalanso

Their classroom

Table 5. 2
* S + ka + obj. + don It’s Subj.’s obj.

* N ka duloki don

It’s my shirt.

* A ka sigilan don

It’s his chair.

Table 6. 3
* Nin ye + S + ka + Obj. ye This is Subj.’s Obj

* Nin ye jɔn ka saki ye?

Whose bag is this?

* Nin ye n ka saki ye.

This is my bag.

“Ka“ never varies. It is the possessed object which takes the plural form.

A ka sigilanw

His chairs.

An ka sakiw

Our bags.

“Ka“ is not used with the family or intimate relations and the parts of the body.

N fa don It’s my father.

Nin ye n ba ye.

This / that is my mother.

A tericε don.

It’s your friend.

I da

Your mouth.

The possessive pronoun “ ta “

The word “ ta “ replaces the object possessed. It translates the English words: mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, yours, theirs according to the subject.

i

Subj. + ta + don

It is Subj.’s

Subj. + ta + tε

It is not Subj.’s

N ka saki don.

It is my bag.

N ta don

It is mine.

Aw ta tε.

It’s not yours.

ii

----

Nin + ye + Subj.+ta + ye

This is Subj.’s

Nin + tε + Subj.+ta + ye

This is not Subj.’s

Nin ye n ka samara ye.

This is my shoe.

Nin ye n ta ye

This is mine.

Nin tε John ka samara ye.

This is not John’s shoe.

Nin tε John ta ye.

This is not John’s.

“ta “ always replaces an object possessed which we mentioned before. When objects possessed are many, “ ta “ becomes “ taw “ ( plural form. ).

John ka bikiw don. A taw don.

Table 7. The emphatic personal pronouns
Simple pronouns Emphatics ---

n

ne

I me

i

e

you

a

ale

he, him; she,her; it

an

anw

we us

aw

aw

you

u

olu

they them

The emphatic “ de “

It is used to insist on a situation. It always goes with the emphatic pronouns.

Jɔn ka biki don?

Whose pen is it?

Ne de ka biki don.

It is my pen.

Ne de ta don.

It is mine.

The emphatic pronouns can also be subjects whenever emphasizing a factor or situation.

Ne de bε bɔ Ameriki.

It’s me who comes from USA.

Ale de bε taa Bamako.

It’s him who goes to Bamako.

Using the structure:

Subj. + bε + Obj. + V + ni + x + ye Subj. + V + with the Obj.

N bε so furan ni furalan ye.

I sweep the house with the broom.

A bε ji ta ni shiyo ye.

He/she takes water with the bucket.

This structure can be used only with hand objects.

The above structure is used to answer to the question below

Subj. + bε + mun + kε + ni + x + ye? What does Subj. do with x?

I bε mun kε ni alimεti ye?

What do you do with the matches?

N bε lanpan mεnε ni alimεti ye.

I light the kerosene lamp with the matches.

But when the object is not taken to work with the question is:

Subj. + bε + mun + kε + Obj. + la/na?

I bε mun kε taji la?

What do you do with the kerosene?

N bε taji kε lanpan kɔnɔ.

I put the kerosene in the kerosene lamp.

EXERCISES

Translate the following sentences in Bambara:

  1. No it is not his.

  2. It is ours.

  3. No they are mine.

  4. It is mine.

  5. It’s me who comes from USA.

  6. It’s him who goes to Bamako.

Ask people the name of things you want to know.

With a someone’s help:

  • Identify at least five objects of your choice in a court yard;

  • Identify at least five objects in your room;

  • Identify at least five objects in the kitchen.

DENBAYA / SOMƆGƆW

TALKING ABOUT THE FAMILY

Communicative Task:

Objectives:

  1. Cite six family relationships in your host family.

  2. Tell exactly the profession of three family members and where they live.

  3. Tell the social status and the age of, at least, three family members in the target language.

Amadu ka denbaya filε. A muso tɔgɔ Assa. A denw tɔgɔ Fanta, Madu, Awa ani Seku.

  1. In Bambara the family, refers to the extended one.

  2. Cousins are considered as siblings and there is a joking relationship between them as well as between sisters-in-law and brothers-in-law, or grand parents and grand children.

VOCABULARY FAMILY MEMBERS

bangebaa/mansa

parent

ba

mother

muso

woman/wife

dencε/denkε

son

balima

sibling

balimamuso

sister

kɔrɔcε/kɔrɔkε

older brother

dɔgɔ

younger

dɔgɔmuso

younger sister

mɔmuso

grandmother

bεnkε

uncle

fa

father

man/husband

den

child

denmuso

daughter

balimakε

brother

kɔrɔ

elder

kɔrɔmuso

older sister

dɔgɔcε/dɔgɔkε

younger brother

mɔkε

grandfather

mɔden

grandchild

tεnεmuso

aunt

SOME EXPRESSIONS

x sigilen don le/lo + place/x sigilen bε + place

x is settled + place

n tε n bangebaaw bara

I don’t live at my parent’s

x balolen don

x is alive

x balolen tε

x isn’t alive

x sara/x bana

x is dead

x furulen don

x is married

x furulen tε

x isn’t married

x furu salen don

x is divorced

x ye cεganan ye

x is a bachelor/single

x ye musoganan ye

x is single

x kɔrɔlen don

x is old

x san ye + number ye/x ye san + number

x is number year old

GRAMMAR Possessive “ Fε “

  1. Possessive “have“ in English is commonly expressed in Bambara by what we call a locative construction. These constructions do not contain verbs. They consist of a noun (or noun phrase) followed by the auxiliary bε or tε, fε followed by a postpositional phrase (a noun or noun phrase followed by a postposition). A postposition is much like a preposition with the exception that it follows its object rather than preceding it.

    Locative construction:

    Noun + Aux. + Noun + Post.

  2. The most common postposition for expressing possession is Fε, which translates very roughly into English as "with". But here it means have.

Affirmative form:

Object

+ bε

+ Subject

+ fε

Subject have the Object

Biki

n

fε.

I have a pen.

Negative form:

Object

+ tε

+Subject

+ fε

Subject have not the Object

Den

n

fε.

I have not a child.

Interrogative form:

Object

+ bε

+Subject

+ fε

(wa) ?

Den

i

fε?

EXERCISES

Answer the following questions in full sentences.

  1. Balima joli b’i fε?

  2. Den joli b’i bangebaw fε?

  3. I balimaw bε min?

  4. I balima jumεn sigilen b’i bangebaw bara?

  5. I bangebaw bε mun baarakε?

  6. Jɔn ye kalanden ye ekɔliba la aw ka so?

  7. Jɔn bε sokɔnɔbaara kε aw ka so?

  8. I balimaw ye san joli ye?

  9. I n’i mɔkε ani i mɔmuso sigilen bε dugu kelen kɔnɔ wa?

Translate into Bambara.

  1. My sister has a daughter.

  2. They have too many children.

  3. My brother is not yet married.

  4. His father is a teacher.

  5. My mother works at the hospital.

  6. Their sisters live in England.

  7. She has ten brothers and five sisters.

  8. We have good trainers.

  9. You’re my brother.

  10. My aunt is divorced.

SANNI

SHOPPING

Communicative Task:

Objectives:

  1. Use local money in a market.

  2. Buy two or three items in a market or a shop.

Mun ni mun bε sɔrɔ nin sugu la?

DIALOG

Samba

Kiliyan! Kiliyan! Na yan! Bagi ɲumanw bε yan!

Amadu

I ni sɔgɔma! N bε bagi ɲumanw fε, nka da duman!

Samba

Ola, i sera a yɔrɔ la. Ne ka bagiw bεε da ka nɔgɔn. U lajε.

Amadu

Nin mεtiri ye joli ye?

Samba

N b’o da diya i la! O mεtiri ye kεmε saba ni bi duuru lɔɔru ye. Kɔmi e don, le/lo barika b’a la

Amadu

Ayiwa! A barika, caman bɔ a la.

Samba

A ka ɲi forokiya la. I b’a san joli?

Amadu

A to kεmε fila la. N bε mεtiri wɔɔrɔ san.

Samba

A kari kari ye kεmε saba ye. Nka, i bε se ka kεmε fila ni bi duuru lɔɔru sara.

Amadu

I ni ce! Mεtiri wɔɔrɔ ye wa fila ni dɔrɔmε kεmε ye. Hɔn! warimisεn segin.

Samba

Fini ni warimisεn filε. I kεnε k’a kɔrɔ!

Amadu

Amiina! Ka sugu diya!

VOCABULARY

MONEY SYSTEM

In Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, and Mali, the monetary unit is dɔrɔmε kelen. It equals five francs.

5F =

dɔrɔmε kelen

10F =

dɔrɔmε fila

25F =

(dɔrɔmε) duuru lɔɔru

50F =

(dɔrɔmε) tan

100F =

(dɔrɔmε) mugan

250F =

(dɔrɔmε) biduuru lɔɔru

500F =

(dɔrɔmε) kεmε

1000F =

(dɔrɔmε) kεmε fila

2500F =

(dɔrɔmε) kεmε duuru lɔɔru

5000F =

(dɔrɔmε) waa kelen

10.000F =

(dɔrɔmε) waa fila

MARKET VOCABULARY

butigi

the shop

sugu

the market

sannikεla

the buyer

warimisεn

change/coins

sanni

shopping

falen

change

butigitigi

the shop keeper

feerekεla

the seller

wari

money

sɔngɔ/da

price

feere

selling

tεrεmεli

bargaining

BUTIGI KƆNƆFƐNW (THINGS IN THE SHOP)

safinε

soap

kafe

coffee

tulu

oil

te

tea

sokola

chocolate

buru kala (kelen)

loaf of bread

sukaro

sugar

kaye

note book

bɔnbɔn

candy

nɔnɔ

milk

nɔnɔ jiman

concentrated milk

safinε mugu

soap powder

alimεti

matches

sigεrεti

cigarette

buru

bread

pili

battery

lεtiriforoko

envelop

pati

tooth paste

bɔrɔsi

tooth brosh

biki

pen

nɔnɔ mugu

milk powder

sεfan

eggs

SUGULAFƐNW (THINGS IN THE MARKET)

yiriden

fruit

lenburuba

orange

mangoro

mango

manje

papaya

lenburukumun

lemon

namasa baranda

banana

jabibi

pineapple

NAFƐNW (INGREDIENTS)

sogo

meat

jaba

onion

tigadεgε

peanut butter

namasa

banana

foronto

pepper

ngɔyɔ

egg plant

jεgε

fish

lenburuba

orange

tamati

tomato

shu

cabbage

ngan

ocra

layi

garlic

OTHER THINGS

bagi

material

tafe

pagne

duloki

a shirt

mɔnturu

a watch

fini

cloth

sanbara/samara

shoes

kulusi

pants

HAKƐW (MEASURES)

sara

pile (tiga sara/a pile of peanut )

litiri tilancε

a half of litre

litiri

a liter

pake

a pack

Table 8. SOME EXPRESSIONS FOR BARGAINING
ayiwa

o.k.

ka x san

to buy x

ka x falen

to make change

ka x segin

to give back x

x ye joli ye?

how much is x x + bε + place (la) x is at place

a barika

reduce or increase it

a di yan x (la)

give it to me at …​ price i kari kari ye joli ye? what is your last price?

hɔn

take it

ka x feere

to sell x

ka x tεrεmε

to bargain

x bana

x is finished x da/sɔngɔ ka gεlεn x is expensive

dɔ bɔ a la

reduce it

a san x (la)

buy it at …​price

wariko don

I have no money

o t’a sɔrɔ

you can’t have it at this price

x da/sɔngɔ ka nɔgɔn /ka di/man gεlεn

x is cheap

x + bε + Pers + bolo/x + bε Pers + fε

to have

objet + bε sɔrɔ place (la)

object is found at place

GRAMMAR THE PAST DEFINITE

The past in Bambara is grouped into categories: Regular verbs and irregular Verbs. All verbs requiring an object, all verbs ending by kε and all reflexive verbs are regular. In transitive constructions the past is indicated by the auxiliary ye. In the negative, the past is formed in the same way for both transitive and intrasitive constructions: the auxiliary is ma in regular auxiliary position.

Here are their structures:

Regular Verbs

Transitive Constructions:

  • Don go don le/lo sɔgɔma, n bε kafe min. (Present tense)

  • Bi sɔgɔma, n ye mɔni min. (Past definite)

  • Kunun, n taara sugu la.

Table 9. i
Affirmative form: Negative form:

Subj + yε + Obj + V

Subj + ma + Obj + V

Bi sɔgɔma, n ye safinε san butigi la.

Bi sɔgɔma, n ma safinε san butigi la.

This morning I bought soap in the shop.

This morning I didn’t buy soap in the shop

Interrogative form:

Subj + yε + Obj + V (wa)?

Subj + ma + Obj + V (wa)?

Bi sɔgɔma, i ba ye ji kalaya joona wa?

Surɔ i ma dute min wa?

Did your mom heat water earlier this morning?

Didn’t you drink tea last night?

Table 10. ii
Affirmative form: Negative form:

Subj + ye+ Vkε + Obj + postp

Subj + ma+ Vkε + Obj +postp

A ye baarakε kɔridelapε la

U ma sεnεkε foro la.

Interrogative form:

Subj + ye + Vkε + Obj + postp (wa)?

Subj + ma + Vkε + Obj +postp (wa)?

I ye barokε i somɔgɔw fε surɔ wa?

I ma sεbεnnikε kalanso kɔnɔ?

Table 11. iii
Affirmative form: Negative form:

Subj + ye + Pron + V

Subj + ma + Pron + V

N ye n ko bi sɔgɔma.

N ma n da joona surɔ.

I washed myself this morning

I did not lie down early last night.

Interrogative form:

Subj + ye + Pron + V (wa)?

Subj + ma + Pron + V (wa)?

I y’i ko bi sɔgɔma (wa)?

Aw m’aw da joona surɔ?

Irregular Verbs

Intransitive Constructions:

In intransitive constructions the auxiliary is the suffix ra or na or la attached to the verb.

  1. Suffix ra/la is the basic form

    Affirmative form: Negative form:

    Subj + Vra + Compl + postp

    Subj + ma +V + Compl + postp

    Kunun, n taara sugu la

    Aw ma taa sugu la kunun.

    Yesterday I went to the market.

    Yesterday I didn’t go to the market.

    Interrogative form:

    Subj + Vra + Compl + postp (wa)?

    Subj + ma +V + Compl + postp (wa)?

    Aw sunɔgɔra joona surɔ?

    Aw ma sunɔgɔ joona surɔ?

    Did you sleep early last night?

    Didn’t you sleep early last night?

  2. Suffix na: after nasal consonants

    Affirmative form: Negative form:

    Subj + Vna + Compl + postp

    Subj + ma +V + Compl + postp

    An kununna joona

    Aw ma kuma u fε.

    Interrogative form:

    Subj + Vna + Compl + postp (wa)?

    Subj + ma +V + Compl + postp (wa)?

    Aw kumana u fε wa?

    Aw ma kuma u fε?

    Did you talk to them?

    Didn’t you talk to them?

  3. Suffix la: if the consonant immediately preceding is an l

    Affirmative form: Negative form:

    Subj + Vla + Compl + postp

    Subj + ma +V + Compl + postp

    Kunun wula fε an bolila dugu sira kεrεfε.

    Aw ma boli bi sɔgɔma.

    Yesterday afternoon we ran by the road.

    You did not run this morning.

    Interrogative form: ---

    Subj + Vla + Compl + postp (wa)?

    Subj + ma +V + Compl + postp (wa)?

    Aw wulila joona bi sɔgɔma?

    Aw ma boli bi sɔgɔma?

    Did you wake up early this morning?

    Didn’t you run this morning?

Time expressions

Here are some time expressions used with the past definite.

surɔ

last night

kunun

yesterday

kunasinin

the day before yesterday

dɔgɔkun tεmεnen

last week

kalo tεmεnen

last month

salon

last year

EXERCISES

Do the following matching game:

  1. kεmε

  2. kεmε saba

  3. kεmε wɔrɔ ni biduuru lɔɔru

  4. wa kelen ni kεmε segin ni biwolonfila ni kelen

  5. wa kelen ni kεmε

  6. mugan ni fila

  7. tan ni naani

  8. dɔrɔmε kɔnɔntɔn

  1. 9355F

  2. 5500F

  3. 70F

  4. 110F

  5. 45F

  6. 3250F

  7. 500F

  8. 1500F

Do the following matching game:

  1. dɔ bɔ a la/a barika

  2. i b’a san joli?

  3. o t’a sɔrɔ.

  4. i kari kari ye joli?

  5. hɔn.

  6. safinε banna.

  7. duloki ye joli ye?

  8. wari di yan.

  9. safinε bε sɔrɔ butigi la.

  10. nɔnɔ banna.

  11. buru tε yan.

  12. tiga dɔrɔmε tan na di yan.

  13. kεmε falen b’i bolo wa?

  14. warimisεn segin.

  15. mun b’i kun?

  1. what do you have on you?

  2. what’s your last price?

  3. how much is the shirt?

  4. have it.

  5. how much do you pay for it?

  6. reduce the price.

  7. that cannot afford it.

  8. give the money.

  9. give the change back.

  10. can you change 500F?

  11. you can find soap in the shop.

  12. there is no bread.

  13. soap is finished.

  14. give me peanut for 50F.

  15. milk is finished

Change the following sentences into the past definite

  1. N bε namasa baranda san sugu la.

  2. An bε na kalanyɔrɔ la sɔgɔma joona.

  3. A tε sannikε bi.

  4. N bε wuli joona ka boli.

  5. I tε foyi kε nakɔ la.

  6. An bε dumunikε yan dimasi.

Refering to this picture complete this dialogue between Amadu and Samba.

Amadu
Amadu
Amadu
Amadu
Amadu
Amadu
Amadu
Amadu
Samba

Nba i ni sɔgɔma

Samba

fini mεtiri ye wa kelen ye

Samba

I b’a san joli?

Samba

O t’a sɔrɔ

Samba

Kεmε segin

Samba

Wari di

Samba

K’an b’u fo

In a village, identify at least five products from the places below:

  • At the market;

  • In a shop;

  • From a street seller.

Use the board below:

Shop items Market items Fruits/jiridenw Sauce ingredients/nafεnw Others/fεn wεrεw

Buy two or three items of your choice in a shop or in the market.

  • Observe the sellers attitudes before and during buying;

  • Bargain the prices of items (what were the proposed prices and the ones at which you bought your articles?)

YƆRƆW TAMASERECOGO

ASKING/GIVING DIRECTIONS

Communicative Task:

Objectives:

  1. Locate, at least, two places.

  2. Use, at least, three expressions to ask and give directions.

DIALOG

Umaru

A’ ni sɔgɔma!

Amadu

Nba, a’ ni sɔgɔma! Dɔ di!

Umaru

Baasi tε! A’ bε hakε to! N bε dugutigi ka so de ɲinin.

Amadu

Dutigi ka so bε an kεrεfε, An bε se ka taa ɲɔgɔn fε.

Umaru

I ni ce! A sira ɲεfɔ n ye, n yεrε kelen bε se ka taa.

Amadu

Ayiwa! I tilen nin sira kelen in fε. I bε kare saba tεmεn,o kɔ, fara i numan fε. Da naaninan don le/lo i kini fε. Mangorosunba bε soda la.

Umaru

I ni baraji! K’an bεn!

Amadu

K’an bε! Ka se ni i ɲuman ye!

Umaru

Amiina!

VOCABULARY

There are some places people refer to locate a given point ( common or public places or buildings, well known people…​)

dɔgɔtɔrɔso

hospital

yirisunba

the big tree

siraba

the main road

worodugu

south

kɔrɔn

east

fan

side of x

yan

here

pɔn

bridge

dugutigi ka so

the village chief’s house

pɔnpe

pump

kɔkɔdugu

north

tilebin

west.

x fan fε

at x side

yen

there.

The following expressions are used to lead someone to a certain point.

i tilen ka taa.(fo…​)

Go straight.(until…​)

fara i kini fε.

Turn right.

tεmεn so la.

Pass over the house

fara i numan fε

Turn left.

sira tigε.

Cross the road

se so ma.

Reach the house.

These other expressions are very polite used by someone who wants a help to find your way.

ɲε n ma!

Please, help me!

haketo!

Excuse me! x yɔrɔ ka jan wa? Is x far?

a ka ja dɔɔni

It’s fairly far i b’i tilen nin sira fε You go straight on this road.

i bε se ka ɲε n ma?

Can you help me?

x bε fan jumεn fε?

Where is x ?

a ma jan (wa)?

Isn’t it far?

x sira bε min?

Where is the way to x ?

i ni baraji

Thanks.

Here are some useful prepositions for giving or receiving directions.

x ɲεfε

in front of x

x kɔnɔ

in x

duguma

on the ground

x kεrεfε

next to x

x kuna

above x

x sanfïε

above x

x kɔfε

behind x

x kan

on x

x Kɔrɔ

under x

x ni y cε

between x and y.

x cεmancε la

at the center of x

The are other common words you meet in the context of giving or receiving directions.

ka x ɲinin

to look for x

ka fili

to make an error

x tununnen don

x is lost

k’i munumunu x kɔfε

to go around x

ka x jira pers. la/na to show x to pers. ka tunun:: to be lost x ka jan y la/na:: x is far from y

The Ordinal numbers are built on the cardinal numbers by adding nan, except for fɔlɔ (first) and laban (last). Here are some examples:

Cardinal numbers Ordinal numbers

kelen

fɔlɔ

first

fila

filanan

second

saba

sabanan

third

naani

naaninan

fourth

x laban

laban

last.

  1. In big cities, people hesitate to indicate somebody’s house. (Because of security issues)

  2. Always double-check when you are given a direction.

  3. “He who asks doesn’t get lost”.

GRAMMAR The Imperative

The Imperative in Bambara is used for making polite requests, suggestions or commands.

Affirmative form: Negative form:

(obj) + Verb

kana + (obj) + Verb

Ji min! (Drink water!)

kana ji min!

I ko! (Wash!)

kan’i ko!

Taa! (Go!)

kana taa!

This is formed by using the auxiliary ka in the affirmative and kana in the negative.

Affirmative form: Negative form:

Suj + ka + (obj) + Verb

Suj + kana +(obj) + Verb

An ka ji min! (Let’s drink water!)

Aw kana kɔlɔnnaji min!

An k’an ko! (Let’s wash!)

I kan’i ko kɔji la!

An ka taa! (Let’s go!)

An kana taa!

The second person plural imperative (you all) is frequently formed by using the pronoun a and the auxiliary ye.

Affirmative form: Negative form:

Suj + ye + (obj) + Verb

Suj + kana +(obj) + Verb

A(w) ye ji min!

Aw kana kɔlɔnnaji min!

A(w) y’aw ko!

Aw kan’aw ko kɔji la!

A(w) ye taa!

Aw kana taa!

EXERCISES

Translate the following sentences into Bambara

  1. Come here.

  2. Turn left.

  3. Go straight.

  4. Cross the third road.

  5. Come and eat.

  6. Don’t speak English.

  7. Speak Bambara.

  8. Don’t laugh.

Translate the following sentences into Bambara

  1. We are in the classroom.

  2. The blackboard is in front of us.

  3. My book is on the wall.

  4. The mosque is in the center of village

  5. My house is near the shop.

  6. The book is under the table._

  7. Segu is between Bamako and Mopti.

  8. Sometimes we study outside.

  9. The bag is on the floor.

Translate these sentences into Bambara.

  1. Excuse me. Can you show me the way to Bamako.

  2. Good morning brother. I am lost. Do you know where the hospital is?

  3. It is not far from here

  4. Go straight. Cross the fifth road and turn right

  5. Yes, I know him. Do you see the big house other there? It is behind that one.

  6. Is Segou far from Bamako?

  7. Turn around over this red car then turn left and go straight.

  8. The mosque is in front of you.

Use the command or the imperative form of these sentences below. Please follow the modeles.

Modeles:

I bε taa sugu la.

taa sugu la.

An bε mangoro dun.

An ka mangoro dun.

Aw tε biyεri min.

A kana biyεri min.

  1. Aw bε lεtεrε ci aw teriw ma.

  2. Aw t’aw ko baji la.

  3. I bε barokε i somɔgɔw fε.

  4. Aw bε kuma bamanankan na tuma bεε

  5. I tε kuma Angilεkan na.

  6. Aw t’aw sigi duguma

  7. I b’i ko don le/lo o don

  8. I tε mɔgɔw neni dugu kɔnɔ.

  9. I bε taa dute min i teriw bara

  10. Aw bε na kalanso la joona

MƆGƆ NI FƐNW TAMASERE COGO

DESCRIBING A PERSON, AN OBJECT AND A PLACE

Communicative Task:

Objectives:

  1. Name, at least, ten (10) parts of human body.

  2. Describe a person by pointing out, at least, five physical and five moral traits.

  3. Describe an object by giving two or three characteristics without notes.

TEXT

Nin muso in man jan, a man surun. A ɲεkisεw ka kunba, a ɲinw jεlen don. A cεkaɲi. A nison ka di tuma bεε. Mɔgɔ sεbε don.

VOCABULARY

PARTS OF THE BODY

FARIKOLO

bolo(kala)

arm

bolokɔni

finger

da

mouth

disi

chest

kamankun

shoulder

kan

neck

kunbere

knee

kunkolo

head

kɔnɔ

stomach/belly

nun

nose

ɲε

eye

nɔnkɔn

elbow

senkala

leg

senkuru

ankle

sentεgε

foot

tulo

ear

tεgε

hand

woro

thigh

QUALIFIERS ( PHYSICAL )

The following adjectives are used to describe physical traits.

x ka jan

x is tall

x ka dɔgɔn

x is small

x ka kɔrɔ

x is old

x ka girin

x is heavy

x cεkajugu

x is ugly

x ka surun

x is short.

x ka kunba

x is strong

x ka fin

x is black

x cεkaɲi

x is beautiful (handsome)

x ka bon

x is big/fat

x ka misen

x is thin.

x ka jε

x is light (complexion)

QUALIFIERS ( MORAL)

These adjectives are used to portray moral state.

x ka jugu

x is bad/mean

x ka kisε

x is devoted/hard working x nison ka di x is happy/glad x hakili ka di x is intelligent

x ka ɲi

x is good.

x ka kegun

x is clever

x nison man di

x is sad

x hakili ka go/(man di)

x is stupid (not intelligent)

x ka farin

x is courageous

QUALIFIERS ( TASTE )

x ka di

x is good Namasa ka di Namasa duman don

x ka kunan

x is bitter Woro ka kunan Woro kunanman don

x ka kumun

x is sour Lenmuru ka kumun Jiriden kumun don

x ka timi

x is sweet abibi ka timi Jiriden timiman don

x ka farin

x is hot Foronto ka farin Foronto farinman don

x ka go

x is bad in jiriden ka go Jiriden goman don

SOME EXPRESSIONS

x bε cogodi?

How is x? ( What is x like? )

x ɲε bε cogodi ?

What color is x?

x fεrεlen don.

x is spacious/roomy/comfortable

x korilen don.

x is round.

x ka magan.

x is smooth.

x ka gεlen.

x is hard/tough

x ka gonin

x is hot

x ka kalan

x is hot

x ka di n ye

x is good to me ( x likes )

COLORS

Please note the different forms of expressing colors in Bambara.

white

Jεman

nin ye jεman ye

nin jεlen don le/lo

a ka jε

 

black

Finman

nin ye finman ye

nin finnen don le/lo

a ka fin

 

red

Bilenman wuleman

nin ye bilenman ye

nin bilennen don

 

blue

Bulaman

nin ye bulaman ye

x bulaman don

 

green

Binkεnεman/ɲugujiman

nin ye ɲugujiman ye

ɲugujima don

 

yellow

Nεrεmuguman

nin ye nεrεmuguman ye

nεrεmuguman don

 

purple

Lankiriman

nin tε bilenman ye

lankiriman don

 

orange

Worojima

 

brown

Sikɔlɔma

 

?

baga

In Mali for many rural or illiterate people there are only two concepts of colors: WHITE ( for bright ) and BLACK ( for dark ).

GRAMMAR ka auxiliary

The ka auxiliary is used to express the english is/are in the affirmative.

The man is the negative form of ka and it expresses is/are not.

Affirmative form: Negative form:

Subject + ka + adj

Subject + man + adj

Mike Tyson ka surun.

Magic Johnson man surun.

Mike Tyson is short.

Magic Johnson is not short.

Chart of exception

These are exceptions to the formation of adjectives in Bambara

Table 12. Chart of exception
S V Adj S V N Adj. (man) - S Adj. (man) V

Bob

ka

bon

Bob

ye

den

belebele(ba)

ye

mɔgɔ

belebele

don le/lo

a

ka

dɔgɔn

a

ye

fitini

ye

fitini

don le/lo

i

ka

jan

i

ye

jamanjan

ye

jamanjan

don le/lo

a

ka

ɲi

a

ye

ɲuman

ye

ɲuman

don le/lo

n

ka

kunba

n

ye

kunbaba

ye

kunbaba

don le/lo

a

ka

di

a

ye

duman

ye

duman

don le/lo

ka

ye

ye

don le/lo

When you use a substantive ( noun ) to express is, the following is used:

Affirmative form: Negative form:

Subject + ye + noun + adj(man) + ye

Subject + tε + noun + adj(man) + ye

Mike Tyson ye cε suruman ye. Mike Tyson tε mɔgɔ jiman ye.

Mike Tyson is a short man.

Mike Tyson is not a white person.

The ye…​ ye is negated to tε…​ ye.

The don le/lo is used to express is/are ( or it is, they are ) as in the following examples:

  • Mobili bilenman don le/lo __ It is a red car.

  • Amerikεn finman don le/lo He/She is a black american.

The negative of don le/lo is tε

Mobili jεman tε

It is not a white car.

Muso juguman tε

She is not a mean woman.

Passive voice “ len/nen “

In this Communicative Task you have been briefly introduced to the Bambara Passive voice. In the following sentence occurred: “Karamɔgɔ jɔlen don le/lo kalanso kɔnɔ“. Jɔ is the root of the verb “stand”. jɔlen is a Passive voice.

Passive voice is not used to describe actions, but to describe the state achieved upon completion of the action. The Passive voice is formed for all verbs without exception with the verb root plus the suffix len (which becomes nen in nasal environments.)

ka jɔ _ jɔlen ka sεgεn _ sεgεnnen

Affirmative form: Negative form:

Subject + Verb + len/nen + don le/lo

Subject + Verb + len/nen + tε

Karamɔgɔ jɔlen don le/lo kalanso kɔnɔ.

Kalandenw sεgεnnen tε.

Interrogative Form:

Subject + Verb + len/nen + don le/lo (wa)?

Subject + Verb + len/nen + tε (wa)?

Kalandenw jɔlen don le/lo kalanso kɔnɔ wa?

EXERCISES

Identify each part of the body according to the following indications:

  1. bolokala

  2. tulo

  3. senkɔniw

  4. kɔnɔ

  5. sentεgεw

  6. nɔnkɔn

  7. nun

  1. woro

  2. senkuru

  3. ten

  4. senkala

  5. kunbere

  6. da

  7. bolonkɔni

Do as in these examples (using the modified adjectives).

Nin dute ka gonin. gban _ Dute gonin(man) don

  1. Nin muso ka ɲi

  2. Nin cε ka surun

  3. Nin jiri ka jan.

  4. Nin ji ka suman

  5. Nin namasa baranda ka di

  6. Nin jiriden ka kumun

  7. Nin sɔgɔn ka ca

  8. Nin so ka bon

  9. Nin mobili ka dogon

  10. Nin cε ka kunba

Do as in these examples (using the passive voice).

A fa ka kɔrɔ _A fa kɔrɔlen don.

Bob kunsigi man fin _A kunsigi finnen tε.

  1. I ka mobili ye bilenman wuleman ye wa?

  2. A cε man kɔrɔ.

  3. Madu fari ka fin.

  4. Umaru kunsigi man jε.

  5. Nin lenmuru ka kumun wa?

  6. Nin so man fεrε.

  7. N nison ka di bi.

Translate these sentences into Bambara.

  1. She’s a tall, dark woman.

  2. She and her husband are really good people.

  3. They have a blue car.

  4. They are always happy.

  • Describe your charming prince/the lady you dream of.

  • Describe a person of your choice. Then, draw him/her respecting your description.

  • Describe the tastes of two foods and two drinks.

One of each that you like and one of each that you don’t like. Present your description.

Visit 2 or 3 different places.

For each place, record whether it’s a big or small one, whether there are lots of people there or not. In short, describe each one of the places visited. Present the results to someone and ask questions on the subject.

Identify at least two or three child frequent sicknesses in this season.

FARIKOLO LAHALAW

DESCRIBING ONE’S MENTAL AND PHYSICAL STATE

Communicative Task:

Objectives:

  1. cite, at least, five common sicknesses

  2. ask, at least, one accurate question to get information about someone’s physical state.

  3. formulate two or three blessings to a sick person.

Ablo ni Musa bε min? Ablo ye jɔn ye? Mun bε Musa la?

DIALOG

1
Fanta

I ni sɔgɔma, Bakari. I nisɔn man di, mun b’i la?

Bakari

N fari man di n na.

Fanta

I yɔrɔ jumεn b’i dimi?

Bakari

N ɲin de bε n dimi kojugu bi.

Fanta

I ye fura ta wa?

Bakari

Ayi, n bεna taa dɔgɔtɔrɔso la.

Fanta

Ala ka nɔgɔyakε, k’a ban pewu!

Bakari

Amiina. Ala ka dugaw minε.

Fanta

Amiina.

2
Fanta

I ni sɔgɔma, Bakari. Munna an m’i ye surɔ?

Bakari

N tun man kεnε.

Fanta

Ee! Mun tun b’i la?

Bakari

N kungolo ye n dimi kojugu kunun wulada. Sufε, n ma se ka sunɔgɔ, n fari bεε tun ka kalan.

Fanta

O bε sɔrɔ sumaya ye dε?

Bakari

N hakili la, a bε sɔrɔ o ye. N bεna taa dɔgɔtɔrɔso la.

Fanta

I ka kan k’i yεrε tanga sosow ma.

Bakari

Tiɲε! N bεna sange sulen damadɔ ɲinin n ka denbaya ye. Ola, sumaya ni bana misεnw tεna an tɔɔrɔ.

Fanta

Ala ka nɔgɔyakε, ka tɔɔrɔ dɔgɔya!

Bakari

Amiina. Ala ka dugaw minε.

Fanta

Amiina.

VOCABULARY

bana

Sickness/disease

banabagatɔ

(banabaatɔ) a sick person

kεnεya

(Good)health

kɔnɔdimi

stomach ache

ɲindimi

tooth ache

kɔdimi

back ache

ɲεdimi

sore eye

bolodimi

sore arm

kandimi

stiff neck

sendimi

sore foot

kungolodimi bε x la/na

x has a headache

In these expressions it says: sickness is at the person

dimi translates ache

kungolo bε a dimi

x’s head is aching him/her

N ɲin bε n dimi

my tooth is aching me

This means person’s part of body is hurting : him/her

MOST COMMON DISEASES:

kɔnɔboli

diarrhea

tɔkɔtɔkɔni

dysentery

sumaya

malaria

murafarigan

flu ​+

Sɔgɔsɔgɔ bε Paul la

Paul has a cough

Mura bε Tom la

Tom has a cold

Kungolodimi bε John la

John has a headache

Kɔnɔdimi bε Lucie la

Lucie has stomachache

Farigan bε Sarah la

Sarah has a fever ​+

n man kεnε

I am sick

i yɔrɔ jumεn b’i dimi?

Which part of your body is hurting you?

i fan jumεn b’i dimi?

Which part of your body is hurting you?

mun b’i la ?

What is the matter with you?

kɔngɔ bε x la/na

x is hungry

salaya

lazy

n sεgεnnen don

I am tired

n tɔɔrɔlen don

I am pained

n degunnen don

I am suffering

n dusukasilen don

I am sad

n nisɔn ka di

I am happy

n nisɔn diyalen tε

I am not happy

fosi/Foyi tε x la

x has nothing

SOME EXPRESSIONS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL STATES:

kɔngɔ

hungry

minɔgɔ

thirsty

funteni

hot

nεnε

cold

DUGAW / BLESSINGS

Ala ka nɔgɔyakε

May God grant relief.

Ala k’a tɔɔrɔ dɔgɔya…​

May the pain lessen.

Ala ka sini fisaya ni bi ye

May tomorow be better than today

Ala k’i segin i yεrε ma

May you come back to yourself

Ala k’a kε jurumu kafari ye

May it be a sin expiator.

Ala ka dugaw jabi

May God answer the blessings

SUPPLEMENTARY VOCABULARY:

Table 13. Vocabulary
banakisε

microbe

banaba

leprosy

banakunbεn

prevention

kεnεyaji

oral rehydration water

kεnεyaba(ga)tɔ

a healthy person

dusukundimi

palpitation

kumabin

migraine

sumu

dental decay

sumuni

boil

joli

a wound

pus

kankɔnɔdimi/mimi

sorethroat

kaba

ringworm

fa

madness

jawuli

scatteredbrain

hakiliwuli

mental fatigue

x kɔsalen (don)

x is energyless

x walakalen (don)

x open, extravert

mun ye x sɔrɔ?

what happened to x

mun binna/cunna x kan?

what struck x?

mun gεrεgεrε ye x sɔrɔ?

what unexpected thing (mishap) happened to x

k’i mun

to apply an ointment

k’i digidigi

to get a massage

k’i wusu

to transpire through smoke or vapour

k’i furakε

to cure oneself

ka sogolikε

to get an injection

ka biɲεturu

to give an injection

(muso) jiginninso

maternity

dɔkɔtɔrɔ

doctor

dɔkɔtɔrɔso

hospital

ka fura ta

to take medicine

ka furakisε kunun

to take a pill

ka furaji min

to drink (a drinkable)

k’i boloci

to get vaccinated

ka pikirikε

to get an injection

GRAMMAR

Here are some ways to say that someone is (not) sick.

Affirmative form: Negative form:

Part of body + dimi + bε + Pers. +la/na

Part of body + dimi + tε + Pers. + la/na

Kungolo dimi bε John la.

Kɔdimi tε Sarah la.

Interrogative Form:

Part of body + dimi + bε + Pers. +la (wa)?

Part of body + dimi + tε + Pers. +la (wa)?

Kungolo dimi b’i la wa?

THE IMPERFECT TENSE: Tun bε

tun bε/tun tε is the auxiliary element for the Imperfect tense in Bambara.
Affirmative form: Negative form: sm

Suj + tun bε + obj + Verb

Suj + tun tε + obj + Verb

Soso tun bε Bakari cin su o su.

Bakari tun tε sange sulen siri.

Kalandenw tun bε kalankε don le/lo go don.

U tun tε baarakε san’u ka na Mali la.

Interrogative Form:

sm

Suj + tun bε + obj + Verb (wa)?

Suj + tun tε + obj + Verb (wa)?

Soso tun bε Bakari cin su o su?

Bakari tun tε sange sulen siri wa?

Kalandenw tun bε yaala Ameriki kɔsεbε wa?

tun ka/tun man is the auxiliary element for the Imperfect tense with adjectives in Bambara.
Affirmative form: Negative form: sm

Suj + tun ka + Adj

Suj + tun man + Adj

A tun ka di

It was good/pleasant.

Here are some ways to say that someone was sick.

Affirmative form: Negative form: sm

Part of body + dimi + tun bε + Pers. +la/na

Part of body + dimi + tun tε + Pers. +la/na

Kungolo dimi tun bε John la.

Kɔdimi tun tε Sarah la.

Interrogative Form:

Part of body + dimi + tun bε + Pers. +la (wa)?

Part of body + dimi + tun tε + Pers. +la?

Kungolo dimi tun b’i la wa?

THE FUTURE TENSE: bεna (bε)

bεna (bε)/tεna(tε) is the auxiliary element for the Future tense in Bambara.
Affirmative form: Negative form:

Suj + bεna + obj + Verb

Suj + tεna + obj + Verb

Soso bεna Bakari cin su o su.

Bakari tεna sange sulen siri.

Suj + bεna + Verb + Obj

Suj + tεna + Verb + Obj

Kalandenw bεna kalankε don le/lo go don.

U tεna yaala dɔrɔn Mali la.

Interrogative Form:

Suj + bεna + obj + Verb (wa)?

Suj + tεna + obj + Verb (wa)?

Soso bεna Bakari cin su o su?

Bakari tεna sange sulen siri?

Sumaya bεna Bakari minε?

Bakari tεna kεnεya sɔrɔ (wa)?

Suj + bεna + Verb (wa)?

Suj + tεna + Verb (wa)?

Kalandenw bεna barokε dugumɔgɔw fε wa?

U tεna taa Ameriki sisan?

Here are some ways to say that someone will be sick.

Affirmative form: Negative form:

Sickness/disease + bεna + Pers. +minε

Sickness/disease + tεna + Pers. +minε

Farigan bεna Tom minε barisa mura b’a la.

Sumaya tεna Sarah minε barisa a bε fura ta.

Sumaya bεna Bakari minε.

Interrogative Form:

Sickness/disease + bεna + Pers. + minε (wa)?

Sickness/disease + tεna + Pers. + minε?

Farigan bεna Tom minε wa?

Sumaya tεna Sarah minε?

EXERCISES

Translate these sentences into Bambara.

A

Are you sick ?

B

Yes, I am sick.

A

What do you have?

B

I have a cold.

A

Do you need pills?

B

No, thank you. I am tired. / I am sleepy.

A

May the pain lessen.

B

Amen.

Refering to the picture make a dialog between Fanta and Ablo

Ablo

I ni sɔgɔma, Fanta. I nisɔn man di, mun bε den na?

Fanta

A fari man d’a la.

Ablo
Fanta
Ablo
Fanta

Fill in the blanks by using the appropriate auxiliary.

  1. Tuma min, n camancε lakɔli la, n kegun dɔɔni.

  2. N _ marabatiga cimin kalanso kɔnɔ.

  3. N _ (neg) taa farikolo ɲanajε kε yɔrɔ la tuma bεε.

  4. Ne ni n teriw _ taa kalanso kɔfε ka sigarεti min.

  5. N basikεti ton na, nka n npogotigininw lajε dɔɔrɔn.

  6. N (neg) kalankε kɔsεbε nka n ko di karamɔgɔ ye.

  7. N karamɔgɔw dεmε ka kalansow labεn. O kɔsɔn, u hakili la n kalanden ɲuman ye.

Fill in the blanks by using the appropriate auxiliary.

  1. Surɔ n _ dakabana sogo kε. N _ mobili kura dɔ boli la.

  2. N _ cεkɔrɔnin dɔ ye sira kan n ɲε fε. A ka sira tigε fali kan.

  3. Cεkɔrɔnin _n ye nka a tεmεn a ka sira fε.

  4. N ’a ɲinin ka mobili lajɔ nka a fεrεnw _ (neg) sɔn.

  5. N _ ’a fε ka kule nka n da ___ (neg) se ka yεlε.

  6. Mobili _ ka girin. N _ _ cεkɔrɔnin faga wa?

  7. Yɔrɔnin kelen, mobili jεnsεn__.

  8. N _ n yεrε sɔrɔ, n sigilen dugumakolo kan; mobili walan _ n bolo kɔnɔ.

  9. Cεkɔrɔnin _ n lajε i n’a fɔ foyi _ (neg) kε.

  10. A _ n ɲininka, “ E _ taa min tan?”

Say how the person in each of these picture is feeling.

. . . . . . . . . .

Refering to the picture do the following matching:

Treated mosquito net

Sange sulen

  1. Sange su ji la, a yεlεma siɲε caman f’a ka ji min miniti 5 kɔnɔ.

  2. I tεgεw ni tasaba ko k’u jε ni safinε ye.

  3. Sange fεnsεn sumaman yɔrɔ la, k’a laja.

  4. San’i k’a daminε, ganw don.

  5. Ji tɔ ni ganw kε dingε kɔnɔ, walima u fili ɲεgεn kɔnɔ.

  6. I ka sange sulen siri, i ka sunɔgɔ i lakananen.

  7. Ji litiri 1 kε tasaba kɔnɔ.

  8. Bulɔku kisε kε ji la, a ka yelen.

  9. Ji ni bulɔku ɲagami.

Identify at least five day time activities.

DELINAKOW / TALKING ABOUT DAILY ACTIVITIES

Communicative Task:

Objectives:

  1. Cite, at least, five daily activities of men and women according to the different periods of the day.

  2. Cite five activities of your own by him/herself.

  3. Cite, at least, five daily or seasonal activities according to the gender, and the age.

  4. What is your daily timetable.

Nin musow bε ka mun kε? Aw ka dugu musow bε ji bɔ kɔlɔn na don le/lo go don le/lo wa? Dugu kɔnɔ cεw bε mun kε don le/lo go don?

TEXT

Musow ka baara dugumisεnw kɔnɔ.

Dugumisεnw kɔnɔ, musow ka baara ka ca. U bε wuli kabini fajiri. U bε fɔlɔ ka ji bɔ kɔlɔn na. U bε tasuma mεnε ka koliji kalaya. U bε yɔrɔw furan ka sɔro ka daraka tobi. Daraka mana dun, u bε minan nɔgɔw ko. U bε susulikε, u bε fini nɔgɔw ko, u bε denw ladon. Mali dugumisεn musow sεgεnnen!

VOCABULARY

Table 14. Vocabulary
fajiri

dawn (sunrise)

tilegan

the heat of the day

fitiri

dusk (sunset)

gεrεn

club

k’i yalayala

to have a walk

ka sεnεkε

to farm

ka te wuli

to make tea

ka balɔn tan

to play football.

ka nɔnnikε

to swim.

k’i ɲεnajε

to have fun

ka fɔlɔ ka

to begin by/with

o kɔ

after it/that

ka sɔrɔ ka

then

kabini

since

sani (yani)

before, since

ntεnεn

Monday

tarata

Tuesday

araba

Wednesday

alamisa

Thursday

juma

Friday

sibiri

Saturday

kari/dimasi

Sunday

sɔgɔma o sɔgɔma

every morning

selifana

around 2 PM.

la(g)ansara

around 4 PM.

saafo

around 8 PM.

k’i lafiɲε

to rest

GRAMMAR THE HYPOTHETICAL FUTURE: with mana

mana is the auxiliary that marks what is called the hypothetical future in Bambara. It is often used like a conditional sentence with “if”, “when” or “whenever” in English. Mana is always found in a subordinate clause in Bambara.

N bε taa n ka dugu la, n bε baara daminε. N mana taa n ka dugu la, n bε baara daminε.

Affirmative form:

Subj + mana + (obj) +Verb + Subj + bε(na) + (obj) + Verb…

Fanta mana daraka dun, a bε(na) minan nɔgɔw ko.

If Fanta eats breakfast, she will wash the dishes.

Subj + mana +Verb + Subj + bε(na) + (obj) + Verb…

Fanta mana wuli, a bε(na) ji bɔ kɔlɔn na.

If Fanta gets up, she will draw water from the well.

Negative form:

mana is not used in the negative form. The negative form is used with ni.

THE CONDITIONAL TENSE: with ni

When the past occurs with ni in the firts clause, it is not referring to past action but rather to something that will have happened in the future.

Affirmative form:

Ni + Subj + (obj) Verb (Past tense) Subj + bε(na) + (obj) + Verb…

Ni Fanta ye daraka dun, a bε(na) minan nɔgɔw ko…​

If Fanta eats breakfast, she will wash the dishes.

Negative form:

Ni + Subj + ma (obj) Verb (Past tense) Subj + tε(na) + (obj) + Verb…

Ni Fanta ma minan nɔgɔw ko, a tε(na) i lafiɲε.

If Fanta does not wash the dishes, she will not take a rest.

CONTREFACTUAL CONDITIONAL:

In contrefactual conditional sentences that involve tun plus the completive in the first clause. The second clause can be compled with the future auxiliary bεna or tεna preceded by tun.

Ni + Subj + tun + (obj) Verb (Past tense) Subj + tun bεna/tεna + (obj) + Verb…

Ni n tun ye wari sɔrɔ, n tun bεna mobili san

If I had gotten money, I would have bought a car.

Ni n tun taara, an tun tεna ɲɔgɔn ye.

If I had gone, we wouldn’t have seen each other.

EXERCISES

Arrange the scrambled words in the boxes to form complete sentences:

n

n

fajiri

ka

kabini

wuli

ko

Don o don le/lo

Fanta

Daraka

fɔlɔ

tobi

fa

la

soli

Ka

n

baarayɔrɔ

taa

n

taa

la

Sani

dun

ka

ekɔli

Daraka

fɔlɔ

ka

n

Do as indicated in this example:

N bε taa n ka dugu la, n bε baara daminε.

na taa n ka dugu la, n bε(na) baara daminε.

  1. sibiri bε se, an b’an lafiɲε.

  2. a bε nakɔ sεnε, a bε nakɔfεn caman dun.

  3. u bε surafana dun, u bε dute wuli.

  4. an bε tila kalan na, an bε barokε an somɔgɔw fε.

  5. dugu bε jε, n terikε bε soli ka na denkundi la.

Transform the following sentences into the negative form.

N bε mobili sɔrɔ, n bε taa Bamako.

Ni n ma mobili sɔrɔ, n tε taa bamako.

  1. Baara bε jigin, an bε marasi bɔ

  2. N bε soli ka wuli, n bε fini nɔgɔw ko.

  3. Fitiri bε se, u bε taa misiri la.

  4. “Stage” bε ban, an bε nisɔndiya.

  5. An bε surafana dun, an bε te wuli.

Do as indicated in this example:

n bε taa Bamako, n bε tilen yen

ni n taara Bamako, n bε (na) tilen ye.

  1. sanji bε na, an tε taa yɔrɔ la.

  2. fitiri bε se, u bε taa misiri la.

  3. n bε surafana dun, n bε tele lajε.

  4. a bε mankankε, n tε se ka sunɔgɔ.

  5. n bε mobili sɔrɔ ka ta Bamako, o bε diya n ye.

Complete the following sentences according to the structure of conditional:

  1. Fanta mana ji bɔ kɔlɔn na, a (ka minan nɔgɔwko).

  2. Fanta mana minan nɔgɔw ko, a (k’i lafiɲε dɔɔni).

  3. Fanta man’i lafiɲε dɔɔni, a (ka taa lɔgɔ ɲini).

  4. Fanta ka baara mana ban, a (k’i da ka sunɔgɔ).

  5. Ni "stage" banna, a (ka taa an ka duguw la ).

  6. Ni Fanta denw ye tilelafana dun, u (ka taa lɔgɔ ɲini).

Turn the following sentences into the negative form:

  1. Ni Fanta ye tasuma mεnε, a bε ji kalaya.___

  2. A mana wuli joona, a denw bε daraka dun joona.

  3. N’a banna baara la, a b’i lafiɲε dɔɔni._

  4. A mana lïtiri sɔrɔ, a bεna nisɔndiya kosïbε.

Combine according to the following sentences:

N bε surafana dun, n bε taa dɔnkεyɔrɔ la.

  1. N mana surafana dun, n bε taa dɔnkεyɔrɔ la.

  2. Ni n ye surafana dun, n bε taa dɔnkεyɔrɔ la.

  1. N bε safinε san, n bε fini ko.

  2. I bε taa so; i b’i ko.

  3. Sanji bε na; an b’an lafεɲε gwa kɔrɔ.

  4. Midi bε se, an bε kalan dabila.

  5. Dugu bε jε, n bε soli ka taa Bamako.

Turn the following sentences into the negative form:

Ni n wulila joona, n bεna soli ka taa Bamako

Ni n ma wuli joona, n tɛna soli ka taa Bamako.

  1. Ni ye wari sɔrɔ, n bεna mobili kura san.

  2. Ni "Stage" banna, an bεna baara daminε.

  3. Ni n somɔgɔw nana bɔ n ye, n bï nisɔndiya kɔsεbε.

  4. N’aw ye baarakε, aw bï wari sɔrɔ.

  5. Ni n ye bamanankan mεn kɔsεbε, an bεna baarokε ɲɔgɔnfε.

Fill in the blanks by using the appropriate auxiliary.

  1. Fɔlɔ fɔlɔ, dugumisεnw kɔnɔ, musow ka baara _ ca. U _ soli ka wuli kabini

  2. fajiri. U _ fɔlɔ ka ji bɔ kɔlɔn na. O kɔ, u _ tasuma mεnε ka koliji kalaya. U _

  3. yɔrɔw furan ka sɔro ka daraka tobi. Daraka kɔfε, u _ tila ka minan nɔgɔw ko. U _

  4. laban ka susulikε, ka fini nɔgɔw ko. U _ denw ladon nin bεε kɔ.

  5. Mali dugumisεn musow _ sεgεnnen!

TAAMAW

TALKING ABOUT TRAVELING

Communicative Task:

Objectives:

  1. cite the three transportation means.

  2. ask three questions to get informed about the means, the fare and the schedule of transportation

  3. use three expressions to wish welcome or safe trip to a traveler.

TEXT

Taamaw

Mali mɔgɔw bε taama kɔsɔbε duniya kɔnɔ. U bε taa yɔrɔ caman na. I b’u sɔrɔ Farafinna jamanaw bεε la. Mali denmisεnw bε taama farajεla jamanaw fana kɔnɔ.

Mali kɔnɔ, mɔgɔw ka taama ka suma, barisa siraw man ɲin. Bolimafεnw man ca, ani u tε se ka taa yɔrɔ bεε. Togodamɔgɔw bε bɔ dugu ni dugu u sen na, nεgεsow la, wotorow la, wala bagaw kan i n’a fɔ: faliw, sow, misiw, ɲɔgɔmεw. Mɔgɔw bε bato ta Kulikoro ni Gao cε, sisikuru bε bɔ Bamako fo kayes.

Sirakoro taama

Ne sera Sirakoro ntεnεn don, le/lo uti kalo tile mugan ni segin san ba fila ni wɔrɔ Mobili donna dugu kɔnɔ ka bεn ni fitiri ye, o y’a sɔrɔ san nana. An taara dugutigi ka so. A y’an bisimila koɲuman.

An sira, dugu jεlen an sɔrɔla ka taa dugu maabaw caman fo (Perefe dankan, Mεri, Dɔgɔtɔrɔ kuntigi, Muso kuntigi, Alimami, Pasitεri, cεmisεn kuntigi, ani n ka karamɔgɔ). Wula fε, dugutigi ni a ka kɔnseyew y’an bisimila a ka so. An y’an nali kun fɔ u ye. A diyara u ye kosεbε, u ko an k’an bisimila. O kɔfε ne ni n ka karamɔgɔ ye kalan daminε. Aa! Sisan kɔni, ne ye bamanankan caman faamu.

Alamisa don, le/lo uti kalo tile bisaba ni kelen, sɔgɔma dizεri waati, dugu musow bεε ni jenbe nana ka donkε n jatigiya la, ka ne fo. An ye donkε kosεbε. Jɔn ko allah, Sirakoro ka di!!!

— Fox Emily

DIALOG dɔgɔkun kelen taama

A

N nana n sara i la, n bεna taa dɔgɔkun kelen taama na sini.

B

Eh! Sini ? Ayiwa, ka taa ka segin nɔgɔya.

A

A miina, ka ɲɔgɔn ye nɔgɔya, ka hεrε fɔ n kɔ.

B

k’an b’u fo! Ka segin n’i ɲuman ye. I k’an sama. I delila ka se yen wa?

A

Ayi, n ma se yen fɔlɔ. Ni alah sɔnna, n bεna aw sama.

VOCABULARY

BOLIMAFƐNW

MEANS OF TRANSPORTATION:

taama

travelling/journey/trip

dugutaa

travelling/journey/trip

bolifεnw

means of transportation

taamaden

traveller

mobili

vehicle

bato

boat

so

horse

kurun

dugout canoe

fali

donkey

moto

motorbike

nεgεso

bicycle/bike

sisikurun

train

ɲɔgɔmε

camel

awiyɔn

airplane

ka taama

to travel

ka taa dugula

to travel.

ka jigin

to get down.

ka taa x kunbεn

to go meet x.

ka biye ta

to take a ticket

ka pase sara

to pay the trip fees

ka fa

to be crowded

ka x sama

to give a trip gift.

ka taa x bila sira

to accompany x

ka taa bɔx ye/la

to pay visit to x.

x fara/x falen don le/lo

x is full

x tiɲεna

x broke down.

x tiɲεnen don le/lo

x is broken down.

BISIMILA

WELCOMING

i danse/ i ni sε

welcome

i (aw) bisimila

welcome.

saha

thanks.

kodi/kori i ɲuman nana ?

did you have a nice trip ?

a ka na aw ɲuman sɔrɔ:: I had a nice trip i ni fama:: It was a long time. a kεra fama ye:: It was a long time n nana n sara i la:: I came to inform you about my trip.

SAMAW: GIFTS

n sama bε min?

where is my gift?

i sama filε

here is your gift.

i sama bε kɔ

I will bring it later.

DUWAWUW/DUGAW: BLESSINGS

ka taa ka segin nɔgɔya

May going and returning be easy

ka ɲɔngɔn ye nɔgɔya

May seeing each other be easy

ɲuman taa ɲuman segin

good trip, good return

ka hεrε k’i ɲε

May peace be front of you }have a good trip.

ka sira diya

May the trip/road be good }

ka segin n’i ɲuman ye

May you return well

ka se n’i ɲuman ye

May arrive well

ka hεrε fɔ n kɔ

May peace come after me.

GRAMMAR THE HABIT OF DOING SOMETHING: ka deli degi ka

This structure is used in the present to induicate that the subject has “the habit of doing something” or is used to do something. ka deli ka is follwed by the infinitive.

THE PRESENT TENSE

Affirmative form: Negative form:

S + bε + deli ka + V (transitif/intransitif)

S + tε + deli ka + V (transitif/intransitif)

A bε deli ka na n ka so.

A tε deli ka taa a sen na baarakε yɔrɔ la.

He is used to come to my house.

He is not used to going to the office on foot.

Interrogative form:

S + bε/tε deli ka + V (transitif/intransitif) ?

THE PAST TENSE

“ka deli ka” is used in the past tense to indicate that the subject has experience of doing something. It denotes that the subject has done something already or at least once.
Affirmative form: Negative form:

S + delila ka + V (transitif/intransitif)

S + ma + deli ka + V (transitif/intransitif)

N delila ka taa Gao bato la.

A ma deli ka don le/lo awiyɔn kɔnɔ.

I’ve been to Gao by boat

He has never been in a plane.

Interrogative form:

S + delila ka + V (transitif/intransitif)?

THE IMPERFECT TENSE:

Affirmative form: Negative form:

S + tun bε + deli ka + V (transitif/intransitif)

S + tun tε + deli ka + V (transitif/intransitif)

A tun bε deli ka taa sinema na weekend o weekend

N tun tε deli ka dumuni san sirada la.

Interrogative form:

S + bε/tε deli ka + V (transitif/intransitif) ?

I tun bε deli ka mun kε weekend o weekend sani i ka na Mali la?

EXERCISES

Answer the following questions:

  1. I taara min site-visit la?

  2. I taara don le/lo jumεn? I seginna don le/lo jumεn?

  3. I taara cogodi?

  4. I taara bolifεn jumεn na?

  5. A tun falen don le/lo wa?

  6. I ni jɔn taara ɲɔgɔn fε?

  7. I ye tile joli kε yen?

  8. Ka bɔ Bamako ka taa i ka dugu la, i ye joli sara?

  9. I ye mun kε tile fɔlɔ?

  10. I ka dugu bε Mali fan jumεn fε?

  11. I ka dugu bε cogodi?

  12. A taama kεra cogodi? I ka taama ɲεfɔ an ye.

  13. I delila ka nin taama ɲɔgɔn kε wa?

    • Readjust the following situations:

You are coming from a trip.

A

I danse B:_

A

taayɔrɔ mɔgɔw ka kεnε? B:_

A

kor’i ɲuman nana? B:_

A

Sira diyara wa? B:_

A

N sama bε min? B:_

I am going to travel, make some blessings for me.

A

N nana sara i la, n bεna taa dugu la B:_

A

B:

A

B:

A

k’a hεrε fɔ n kɔ B:_

Make as in the following example.

N bε to ka wuli joona

N bε deli ka wuli joona.

A bε to ka n dεmε n ka baara la. _ An bε to ka ɲɔgɔn sɔrɔ yen. A tε to ka n fo. _

Make as in the following example.

A binna moto la.

A delila ka bin moto la.

An taamana ɲɔgɔn fε _ An ma taa jamana wεrε la _ A ye nin mobili ɲɔgɔn dilan. _ N ma dɔlɔ min fɔlɔ. _

  • Name five cooking tools

  • Name five meals

DUMUNIW

TALKING ABOUT MEALS

Communicative Task:

Objectives:

  1. Cite, at least, five West African meals

  2. Explain, at least, one recipe to someone

  3. Enumerate four behaviors when eating in West Africa and compare them to the American ones.

Nin muso in bεka mun tobi? Mun ni mun bε gabugu kɔnɔ?

  • Cultural Notes:

    1. It’s important to invite people to eat (feel free to say yes or no).

    2. Avoid smelling food.

    3. Always use your right hand to eat.

    4. Generally people eat together in the same bowl but men and women eat separately.

    5. Cooking is a women’s role.

TEXT

Dumuniw ani dumunikεyɔrɔ ladaw.

Mali ka bon, a siyaw fana ka ca. O n’a ta o ta, siyaw ka dumuniw n’u ka dumuniyɔrɔ ladaw man jan ɲɔgɔn na kosεbε. Mali siyaw caman bε to, basi, dεgε, mɔni, seri, samε ani malokini dun. U bεε bε dumuni kε siɲε saba tile kɔnɔ: daraka, tilelafana ani surafana. Musow ni cεw tε dumunikε ɲɔgɔn fε yɔrɔ caman na Mali la. Cεw wali musow bε dumunikε ɲɔgɔn fε minεn kelen kɔnɔ. Danfara dɔw bε siyaw ni ɲɔgɔn cε. Bamananw bε seri sukarontan walima tosira kε daraka ye. Bamananw fana ka surafana n’u ka tilelafana caman ye to ye. Malokini bε tobi nisɔndiya donw dɔrɔn. Kɔrɔbɔrɔw bε furufuru kε daraka ye. U caman ka tilelafana ni surafana ye malokini ye. Basi ka di marakaw ye kɔsɔbε. Siyaw dɔw bε barika da dumuni kɔfε nka dɔw t’a da. Dumuniyɔrɔ ye kalansoba ye Mali la.

Nin muso in bεka mun tobi? O dumuni in tobicogo ɲεfɔ.

Tamatina dilancogo

  • Dilannifεw

    1. tamati mɔnenba

    2. tigatulu

    3. jabakεnε

    4. kɔgɔ

    5. ji

  • Dilanniminεw

    1. barama/fugantasa

    2. furunε

    3. finfin

    4. kutu

    5. muru

  • Dilancogo

    1. Finfin kε furunε kɔnɔ, tasuma kε finfin na. A fifa.

    2. Ni tasuma kamina, barama wala kasilɔri sigi tasuma kan. Ji dɔ k’a kɔnɔ.

    3. I tεgε ko k’a jε. Tamati ni jaba ko k’u jε.

    4. Tamati kε ji kalaman na. U kelen kelen ta, u fara b’u la.

    5. U bila tasa jεlen dɔ kɔnɔ. U nɔɔni.

    6. Barama sigi tasuma kan tuguni. Tulu hakε min bε bεn i ka tamati ma, o kε barama kɔnɔ.

    7. Tulu mana kalaya, tamati dɔɔni dɔɔni kε tulu la. To ka kutu kε k’a lamaga.

    8. Jaba tigε-tigε. A kε tamati na kan.

    9. kɔgɔ kε tamati na la, dɔɔni dɔɔni. To k’a nεnε.

Duncogo n’a lamaracogo

  • Nin tamatina in bε se ka kε sogo jeninen, jεgε jirannen, woso, wala kɔmitεri balabalalen kan, k’u dun. Waa, a ka di kɔsεbε.

  • A lamaracogo man gεlεn. I b’a kε buteli dɔ kɔnɔ ka tulu dɔɔni k’a kan k’a lasago yɔrɔ sumannen na.

  • Tamatina kεfεnw ye jumεnw ye?

  • Kεfεnw wεrεw bε se ka don le/lo a dilanni na wa?

  • I bε se k’a lamara cogo wεrε jumεn na?

VOCABULARY

Table 15. Vocabulary
dumuni

food

balo

food.

daraka

breakfast

tilelafana

lunch.

surafana

dinner

nafεn

condiment.

na

sauce

kεfεnw

ingredients

barama

pot

galama

ladle.

filen

calabash

muru

knife.

shilan

food mill/reel

furunε

stove

finfin

charcoal

fugan tasa

aluminum bowl

kini/malokini

cooked rice

basi

cous-cous.

dεgε

ceam made of cereale

mɔni

porridge.

to

to (malian food)

seri

porridge.

zamε

cokked rice with condiments mixed

furufuru

fritter/doughnut

tosira

left over to

basisira

left over cous-cous

minan

utensil

kolon

mortar

kolon-kala

pestle

kurun

stool.

kuyεri/kutu

spoon

tasa

bowl.

tobili

cooking

ɲɔ

millet

malo

rice

fini

fonio.

kaba

maize

yiriden mɔlen

ripe fruit

jaba

onion

tamati

tomato.

namasa baranda

banana

lemuruba

orange.

lemurukumu

lemon

tiga

peanut.

foronto

pepper

layi

garlay

tulu

oil

x mugu

the powder of x.

tigadεgε

peanut butter

dabilenni

hibiscus.

kɔkɔ/kɔgɔ

salt

sogo/soko

meat.

siya

ethnic group

lada

costum.

x sukarotan

x without sugar

ka barika da/ ta

to thank.

o n’a ta o ta

despite

ka x susu

to pound x.

ka x ko k’a jε

to wash properly

ka x wɔrɔ

to peel

ka x kisε/kolo bɔ

to take out seed

ka x tigε tigε

slice

ka x suma

to measure

ka x daji

to soak

ka x si

to grind/crush

ka x tobi

to cook

ka x kε minε kɔnɔ

to put x in

ka x mara

to keep

ka x lasagon

to keep

ka x jε

to clean

ka x nɔɔni

to mix

ka x tigε

to cut x.

ka x kε y la/na

to put x in y

ka x wele y la

to call x for y

ka x datugu

to cover x

ka x dayεlε

to open x.

HERE ARE OTHER WORDS AND EXPRESSIONS WHICH CAN HELP YOU TO TALK MORE EASILY ABOUT MEALS.

a barika

thank you(after a meal)

a barika Ala ye

you are welcome.

i ni gwa

thank you

i ni daba

thank you.

k’a suma i la

you are welcome

k’a suma i kɔnɔ

you are welcome.

na dumuni na

come and eat

n’an ka dumunikε

come and eat.

dumuni mɔnna

the meal is ready

dumuni sigira

the meal is ready.

n faara

I’m full

n falen don le/lo

I’m full.

n faara teu-teu

I’m completely full

n ye dumunikε sisan

I have just eaten.

k’i ni hεrε bεn

good appetite

nabaa/nabaga

newcomer

mun b’i bolo?

what do you have?

mun ni mun bε yan?

what do you have here?

a kɔkɔ cayara dɔɔni

there is too much salt

kɔkɔ t’a la

there is no salt in it.

kan’a caya kosεbε

don’t give too much

dɔɔni far’a kan

add a little bit.

DIALOG

Umaru

I ni sɔgɔma!

Amadu

Nba. Cε! a kεra di? An m’i ye gεrεn na surɔ dε!

Umaru

Foyi ma kε! N tun bε furusiridɔn yɔrɔ la. A kεra ɲεnajεba ye.

Amadu

A diyara wa?

Umaru

Kojugu! Dumuni ma kε foyi ye! An y’an kɔnɔ fa ani ka dɔnkε fo ka dugu jε.

Amadu

Ala ka kε furu ye!

Umaru

Amiina!

GRAMMAR THE USE OF kε

Kε has many meanings but in these strucures it means: to be done; to be made; to occur or happen. Below are the structures and some examples.

THE PRESENT TENSE:

Affirmative form: Negative form:

Suj + bε kε + Compl + ye

Suj + tε kε + Compl + ye

Mɔni bε kε daraka ye sɔgɔma o sɔgɔma.

To tε kε tilelafana ye an ka so.

Mɔni is made for breakfast every morning

To is not made for lunch at our place

THE PAST TENSE:

Affirmative form: Negative form:

Suj + kεra + Compl + ye

Suj + ma kε + Compl + ye

A kεra baara ye!

A ma kε foyi ye!

Foyi ma kε!

A kεra dɔgɔtɔrɔ ye.

Aw ma kε wɔlɔntεriw ye fɔlɔ.

Interrogative Form:

Mun kεra?

THE FUTURE TENSE:

Affirmative form: Negative form:

Suj + bεna kε + Compl + ye

Suj + tεna kε + Compl + ye

Aw bεna kε wɔlɔntεriw ye sɔɔni .

A tεna kε foyi ye.

EXERCISES

Translate the following sentences into Bambara.

  1. Sauce is made of peanut butter.

  2. The trainee becomes volunteer after nine weeks.

  3. One should not chat in class.

  4. One should not dance in the mosque.

  5. John will be a good volunteer.

  6. What happened to you yesterday?

  7. What will happen if you don’t go?

    • Explain the recipe of a meal you like to cook.

    • Exchange a recipe you know for a West Afrian one with a friend.

    • Get informed about:

      • The types of meals in West Africa

      • The recipies for these meals

      • The typical meals of an ethnic group.

ƝANAJƐW

TALKING ABOUT FEASTS AND LEISURE

Communicative Task:

Objectives:

  1. Cite three religious and three traditional feasts in Mali.

  2. Name, at least, three leisure time activities in your community and describe one of them.

Answer these questions.

  1. Nin ye mun ɲεnajε ye ?

  2. Dugumɔgɔw y’aw bisimila ka ɲε aw na don le/lo wa ?

  3. Aw nisɔndiyara kɔsεbε wa ?

DIALOG

1.

Umaru

An ni sɔgɔma!

Amadu

Nba. Cε! a kεra di? An m’i ye gεrεn na surɔ dε!

Umaru

Tiɲε don. N tun bε furusiridɔn yɔrɔ la. A kεra ɲanajεba ye.

Amadu

A diyara wa?

Umaru

Kojugu. Jamaba de tun bε yen. An ye dumunikε ani ka dɔnkε fo ka dugu jε.

Amadu

Fɔlifεn jumεn tun bε yen?

Umaru

An ye balani dɔn fo k’an sen kari.

2.

Jelikε

An ni su!

Den-fa

Nba , aw ni su!

Jelikε

Hεrε tilenna wa?

Den-fa

Hεrε dɔrɔn.

Jelikε

Mɔgɔ nakun ka fisa i yεrε ye. N’i ye n wulilen ye ka se yan, juguman tε. A kun ye furu sira ye. Keyitalakaw ye woro tan ni fura siri, k’u ɲε bɔra aw denmuso Fanta fε. U dun t’a ŋaniya ni foyi ye n’u denkε Bakari furumuso tε. Woro tan filε n’a bε bεn aw ma, o bε diy’an ye kɔsεbε.

Den-fa

An bε woro minε fɔlɔ. Den bε yan, den baw bε yan. N’an y’olu ɲininka, olu mana jaabi min di, an n’o fɔ aw ye. Nin diyar’an ye, a bεnn’an ma. Hakεto b’o kan.

Jelikε

Aw Keyita! Ala k’a ɲεn k’a d’an ma. N bε sira ɲinin.

Den-fa

Kuyate! Sira dir’i ma. K’an b’u fo!

Jelikε

U n’a mεn! Ka su hεrε d’an ma!

VOCABULARY

FƆLIFƐNW DƆW

SOME INSTRUMENTS

jenbe

drum

balani

xylophone

ntamani

hand-held drum

gitari

guitare

ŋɔni

an indigenous guitare

kora

kora

file

a flute

ƝƐNAJƐ DƆW

CELEBRATIONS

denkundi

baptism

furusiri/kɔɲɔ

marriage

furasi

circumcision party

seliba

Tabaski

selideni/seliɲinin

Ramadan

san yεlεma seli

new year’s day

yεrεma hɔrɔnya seli

Independence day

dɔn

dance

marasibɔ

to play cards

farikolo ɲεnajε

sports

ADDITIONAL VOCABULARY

gεrεn

club

jama

crowd

jeli

griot

woro

kola nut

bolomafara

contribution

ka x sɔn

to give a present

ka tεgεrεfɔ

to applaud

morikε

marabout

GRAMMAR THE PASSIVE VOICE:

The passive voice is formed by adding ra (na, la) to the infinitve form without ka (or bε of course). You can then notice that we get past form of the verb.

Affirmative form:

Suj (passif)+ Vra/na/la + Compl (suj act) +(fε/bolo)

Woro dira denfa ma jelikε fε.

Woro minεna denfa fε.

Dumuni sigira Fanta fε

The meal has been set by Fanta

Te wulila

Tea has been boiled

Mobili kora Musa fε

Negative form:

Suj (passif)+ ma +Verb + Compl (suj act) +(fε/bolo)

Ayi furu ma siri fɔlɔ.

Ayi wεri ma ci ne bolo.

Mobili ma ko Musa fε

EXERCISES

Make as in the following example.

Bakari ye wari di Musa ma -→ Wari dira Musa ma Bakari fε.

  1. Fanta ye ji kalaya.

  2. Kɔɲɔnmuso ye fini kuraw don.

  3. Jelikε ye gitari fɔ furusiri yɔrɔ la.

  4. An ye dɔn dabila su fε

  5. U ye balani fɔ kɔsεbε

  6. Jelikε ye wari caman sɔrɔ

    • Make as in the following example.

Dumuni sigira ka ban -→ Dumuni ma sigi fɔlɔ.

  1. Furusiri kεra misiri la.

  2. An kunbεna ka ɲε u fε.

  3. Mobili tiɲεna a bolo.

  4. Kini dunna ka ban.

MƆGƆ WELELI

ACCEPT OR DECLINE AN INVITATION

Communicative Task:

Objectives:

  1. Use, at least, three expressions to invite someone in a real situation.

  2. Use appropriately three expressions to accept or decline an invitation.

DIALOG

1
Mamu

Fanta! i ni fama sa!

Fanta

An bεε ni fama.

Mamu

I tununna dε!

Fanta

O kεra! N tun taara dugu la.

Mamu

I nani diyara n ye. Tiɲε don, le/lo n dɔgɔmuso ka furusiri bε kε sibiri don. N’i b’a masɔrɔ, n b’a fε i ka na o la. An bε ɲanajεba kε wula fε.

Fanta

Basi tε, ni Ala sɔnna i bεna n ye.

2
Umaru

I ni wula, Susan!

Susan

Nse! Umaru, hεrε tilenna?

Umaru

N bε Ala tanu! A bε diy’an ye n’i bε se ka n’an ka furusiridɔn yɔrɔ la bi su in na.

Susan

Bi su in na! Haa! N tεn’a masɔrɔ. N bolo degunnen don le/lo barisa ɲɔgɔnye kεrεnkεrεnnen dɔ bε n bolo. A kεra baara ye. Kana jigin n na. Ala ka siɲε wεrε jir’an na.

Umaru

N tεna jigin i la. Ala ka dugawu minε!

Susan

Amiina!

VOCABULARY

EXPRESSIONS TO INVITE SOMEONE

n ba ɲin’i fε

I would like you to

n jigi b’i kan

I count on you.

o bε diya n ye

It will please me

n b’i deli

Please (I am begging you).

EXPRESSIONS TO ACCEPT AN INVITATION

o diyara n ye

It’s my pleasure(pleased me).

i bε n ɲεsigi

Organize a meal for me (set something for me).

Ala k’an to ɲɔgɔn ye

May we count on each other.

ni Ala sɔnna, i bε n ye

If god pleases, you will see me.

EXPRESSIONS TO DECLINE AN INVITATION

n t’a masɔrɔ

I won’t have time

n bolo degunnen don

I am busy.

a kεra baara ye

What a pity

kana jigi n na

Don’t hold it against me.

GRAMMAR THE EMPHATIC SA

SA

Sa is used in two situations:
  1. As an emphatic: It means very.

    I ni fama sa!

    It has been a very long time!

    Nin cε ka jugun sa!

    This man is so mean!

  2. It can mean, please.

    I sigi sa!

    Please sit down!

    Dumunikε sa!

    Eat, please!

THE EXPRESSIONS OF DESIRE AND OBLIGATION

The expressions of desire and obligation require the use of the infinitive.
k’a fε ka

to want

N b’a fε aw ka tilen n ka so.

I want you to spend the day at my house.

K’a ɲini x fε

to ask someone to.

N y’ a ɲini Mamadu n’a muso fε u ka na dumuni kε.

I asked Mamadou and his wife to come and eat.

A ka di x ye

to please to.

A ka di n ye i ka n dεmε tobili la.

I want you to help me to cook.

Wajibi don

It’s obligatory.

Wajibi don le/lo n ka taa nin dekundi yɔrɔ la.

I have to go to this baptism.

EXERCISES

Complete this dialog. Accept the invitation.

A

I ni sɔgɔma.

B
A

I ni fama.

B
A

I bε taa min?

B
A

Sini sufε, n bε te wuli n ka so. I bε se ka na wa?

B
A

O diyara n ye.

B

Complete this dialog. Decline the invitation.

A

N terimuso, i tununna dε.

B
A

N ba fε i ka taa bɔ n ye sini su fε, an bε te min ka barokε.

B
A

N b’i deli sa !

B
A

I b’a masɔrɔ don le/lo jumεn.

B
A

Ayiwa, k’an b’u fo.

B

Case study:

Susan is invited by her brother to a wedding party. Her brother’s cousin Invites her to dance repeatedly. A bit later she decides to go back home. The following day, she learns her brother and his cousin had a fight. Since then, she feels uncomfortable at home.

You have a very nice malian friend. He invites you at his house. Tell him you are busy. Find out 2 or 3 excuses to decline the invitation.

Invite a friend or family to an activity.

DƐMƐ ƝININ

ASKING FOR HELP

Communicative Task:

Objectives:

  1. Ask for or decline a proposal of help in a given situation.

Nin cε in bε mun na kεnεma? A ka baara ye mun ye?

DIALOG

Sarah

Ee! Mun kεra? N ka nεgεso bila! I bε taalen ni n ka nεgεso ye min? A ye son bεn! A' ye n dεmε!

Musa

Jɔn kulekan bε yan? Mun y’i sɔrɔ? Jɔn donna i kan?

Sarah

A’ ye na! A’ ye bɔ! Son taara ni n ka nεgεso ye. N b’aw deli. A’y’a kunbεn! A’ye ɲε n ma!

Musa

I hakili sigi. A tε se ka taa yɔrɔ jan.

Passant

Kule dabila n balimamuso. U ye i ka son minε. A ni nεgεso b’u bolo ka na.

Sarah

O ye Ala tanu ye. Aw ni ce! Aw ni baraji! Hakεto! Musa, n hakili la, n ka kan ka sokɔlɔsila dɔ ɲinin min bεna n ka dukɔnɔna kɔlɔsi, k’a janto da la.

Musa

O ka nɔgɔn. An bεna mɔgɔ sεbε ɲinin i ye. Hali ni mɔgɔ wεrε fɔra i kɔ, ale na sɔrɔ yan.

VOCABULARY

EXPRESSIONS USED TO ASK FOR HELP:

wooyi! wooyi! wooyi n ba den!

interjection used to ask for help

a’ye na!

come over here

a’ye bɔ!

come out

ɲε n ma!

Please/help me

n dεmε!

help me

a/u bεna bin n kan !

she/he (they are) is agressing me.

a/u bε n kɔ!

she/he (they are) is purchasing me.

i bε se ka n dεmε wa?/a’ye n dεmε!

can you help me?

EXPRESSIONS USED TO REFUSE HELP:

i lafiɲε (sa)!

get a rest

n ma jigin i la.

I excuse you

a ka ɲi ten.

its good enough

EXPRESSIONS USED IN A CASE OF AGRESSION:

n bila!/ n bolo bila!

leave me alone

a ye son bεn!

thief ! thief !

sabali

be tolerant (easy)

hinε n na !

have pity on me

n b’i deli !

please

n to ala ye (kama/kɔsɔn)

for god’s sake, leave me.

EXPRESSIONS USED IN A CASE OF INDESIRED ATTENTION:

bɔ n kun na!

leave me alone

n to yen!

leave me alone

i da bɔ n na!

leave me alone

fara n na!

leave me alone

i ɲε bɔ n na!

why do you stare at me?

i bε n lajε munna?

why do you stare at me?

i bε n foto fε wa?

Do you want my picture?

i ma n ɲɔgɔn ye wa?

haven’t you seen anyone like me?

mun kεra?/a kεra di ?/mun don?

what’s the matter?

EXPRESSIONS USED TO ADDRESS A GUARDIAN/A HOUSEWORKER:

k’i janto x la/na

to pay attention to x.

ka x kɔlɔsi

to take care of/to look after x.

ka x bila ka don le/lo

to let x get in

ka x gεn

to chase x.

ka x makɔnɔ

to wait for x.

ka fɔ x kɔ

to miss.

ka x kalifa

to give/to look after

ka gεrεn x la

to get close to x.

EXERCISES

Translate the following sentences and phrases into Bambara.

  1. Come early tomorrow. Clean up the courtyard.

  2. Don’t leave the door open. Lock it.

  3. Watch out the wall behind.

  4. Don’t let anyone enter the house.

  5. Chase animals and water the trees.

  6. If my friend comes while I am not here, tell him/her to wait for me.

Identify at least two activities according to the seasons and the genre

Use the board below:

1 Fonεnε

2 Tilema

3 Taratile

4 Samiya

1 Cεw

2 Musow

WAATIW LAHALAW

TALKING ABOUT THE WEATHER

Communicative Task:

Objectives:

  1. Cite three characteristics of the main seasons in West Africa.

  2. Cite, at least, two activities related to the seasons, according to gender.

DIALOG

John

Amadu, i ni sɔgɔma.

Amadu

Nba, hεrε sira John?

John

Hεrε dɔrɔn. N bε taa bɔ n terikε ka foro la ka na.

Amadu

Ee! I t’i jɔ dɔɔni. E ɲε tε sanfinnenba la?

John

E ko nin san bε na sisan?

Amadu

Funteni b’a kɔrɔ cogo min na, ne miiri la a bε na.

John

Funteni ye sanji tamasere ye aw fε yan wa?

Amadu

ɔwɔ, nka o dɔrɔn tε dε! San tamasere dɔ wεrεw ye kabanɔgɔ, tile bɔ cogo ani fiɲε ci cogo ye. Hali kɔnɔ dɔw bε san kibaruya fɔ an sεnεkεlaw ye.

John

Kabako! Ni n bε taa, n bεna n ka sanji minεfini ta. I ni ce. Amadu, n mana segin, an bε se ka barokε Mali waatiw ni Ameriki taw kan wa?

Amadu

O bε diya n ye kosɔbε. Ola n yεrε bεna faamuya dɔ sɔrɔ Ameriki kan. K’an bεn sɔɔni .

John

K’an bεn! Ka hεrε fɔ n kɔ.

Amadu

Amina! K’i ɲuman segin!

VOCABULARY

Table 16. Vocabulary
tilema

dry season

taratile

hot and dry season

samiya

rainy season

fonεnε

cold season

funteni waati

hot season

nεnε tuman

cold season

gɔngɔn

the dust

kabakolo

sky

sanji

rain

san pεrεn

thunder balt

san kulu

thunder

san mεgεru

lightning

san bεlεni

the hail

cɔcɔ

heavy rain

sanfin

the storm

fiɲε

the wind

funteni

the heat

kawula

hot and humid season

bɔgɔ

mud

kabanɔgɔ

cloud

tubabu kalo

gregorian calendar

farafin kalo

lunar month

zanwuye (kalo)

January

Feburuye

February

marisi

March

EXERCISES

Translate the following sentences:

  1. It rained a lot last night.

  2. A bad wind blew before the rain.

  3. Kids hid themselves behind the big tree.

  4. The big Moussa fell into the mud

  5. His clothes are very dirty now

Ask someone about their activities during different seasons.

Use the board below: Baaraw/hajuw Sankɔnɔ kalow waati (Write the number corresponding to the activities/events) Zanwuye(kalo) fonεnε waati 1 m/w Feburuye(kalo) Marisi(kalo) Awirili(kalo) Mε(kalo) Zuwεn(kalo) Zuluye(kalo) Uti(kalo) Sεbutanburu(kalo) ɔkutɔburu(kalo) Nowanburu(kalo) Desanburu(kalo)
  1. nakɔ baara

  2. jago misεn

  3. tungalataa/dugubakɔnɔtaali

  4. forobabana

  5. so dila/jo

  6. biriki dila

  7. foro baaraw

  8. jiriden tɔmɔ

  9. suma tigε

  10. seginkɔtuma

  11. furusiriw tuma/kɔɲɔw

  12. suma dεsε

  13. wari sɔrɔ tuma

  14. seliw

  • man (m)

  • woman (w)

SEKO NI DƆNKOW

TALKING ABOUT ONE’S SKILLS

TEXT

Sekow ni bololabaaraw

Bololabaarakεlaw jɔyɔrɔ ka bon kɔsɔbε jamana in kɔnɔ. Kabini lawale la, an ka minεnw fanba bεε bε dilan bololabaarakεlaw de fε. Dugu si tε taa u kɔ. Ulu de b’an mago caman ɲε. I bε garankεw, gesedalaw, numuw, sanu ni warijε fagalaw, dagadilannaw, kɔlɔnsennaw, sojɔlaw, jiridεsεlaw, kundigilaw, mekanisiɲεw, menizenw sɔrɔ an ka dugu caman kɔnɔ. Nin seko ni dɔnko mɔgɔw fana tε taa sεnεkεlaw, nakɔbaaralaw, bagangεnnaw, mɔnikεlaw, dosow ni jeliw kɔ.

DIALOG

Amadu

N terikε John, e yεrε bε mun baarakε an ka dugu in kɔnɔ?

John

ɲinikali ɲuman! Ne ye yiriforow ni kungoyiri nafamaw lakanabaa wɔlɔntεri ye. N bε baarakε sεnεkεlaw ni nakɔtigiw fε. N bε ladilikan di mɔgɔw ma yirituru ni yiriw ladoncogo ɲuman kan. N bε dugu mɔgɔw dεmε yirishεnw sɔrɔ cogo n’u turu cogo la ani nɔgɔ ni nɔgɔdingεw dilanni fana la. N bε taa nakɔw ni forow kɔnɔ tuma ni tuma ka kuma nin fεnw kan.

Amadu

Ayiwa! Ne hakili la, n y’i ka baara faamu sisan. Ala k’i dεmε.

VOCABULARY

PROFESSIONS/WORKERS

bololabaarakεla

hand worker/artisan

garankε

cobbler/shoemaker

numu

blacksmith

gesedala

weaver

baganmarala

cattle breeder

masɔn

builder/mason

minize

joiner/carpenter

mɔnnikεla

fisherman

sεnεkεla/cikεla

farmer

yiriturubaara

plantation/tree planting

mekanisiɲε

mechanic

baarakεden

servant/domestic

baaraɲini

laborer

nakɔbaarala

gardener

nakɔbaara

gardening

kεnεya ni saniya baara

health educator

ji ni saniya baara

water sanitary work

kɔlɔnsenna

well digger

jagokεla

merchant

jagomisεn layiriwali baarakεla

"SED" agent

SOME EXPRESSIONS

seko ni dɔnko

aptitude

x dilala

repairman

x tε fosi dɔn

x knows nothing

x tε se foyi la

x can’t do anything

x ye fugari ye

x is good for nothing

x baara nɔ ka ɲi

x does a good job

x bε se baara ɲuman na

x does a good job

ka x kε ka ɲε

to do x well

ka dεsε x la

not to be able to x

k’i kamana gan

to cause trouble/to puzzle

k’i kɔnɔna fili

to cause trouble/to puzzle

ka se ka

can/ to be able to

ka se x la

to be able to do x

ka x ɲεfɔ

to explain

Te wulicogo

  • Wulifεnw

    1. te

    2. sukaro

    3. nanaye

    4. ji

  • Teminεnw

    1. barada

    2. furunε

    3. finfin

    4. wεriw

    5. pilato

Wulicogo N’i bε te wuli, i bε fɔlɔ ka:

  1. tasuma ɲaga, o kɔ i bε te kε barada kɔnɔ.

  2. I bε ji wεri ɲε naani ni tila k’a la.

  3. O kɔ i bε barada sigi tasuma kan. I b’a wuli miniti bisaba kɔnɔ.

  4. Tuma kelen kelen, i b’a jigin ka teji kε barada wεrε kɔnɔ.

  5. O kɔ, i bε sukaro k’a la. I bε sɔrɔ k’a suuru wεriw kɔnɔ walasa ka sukaro yelen teji la.

  6. O kɔ, i b’a nεnε ni sukaro y’a bɔ. I bε teji yεlεma barada kɔnɔ tuguni.

  7. I b’a kalaya dɔɔni.

  8. Mɔgɔ caman bε teji dɔ to wεri kelen kɔnɔ walasa ka musi dila n’o ye wεri tɔw kɔnɔ.

  9. I bε tila ka wεriw kɔ sananko.

  10. Te mana kalaya dɔɔni, i b’a tila wεriw ni ɲɔgɔn cε k’a di mɔgɔw ma.

  11. Segin bε kε ni kan fo siɲε saba.

  12. Siɲε fila tɔw la i bε se ka nanaye k’a la.

  13. Temugu ni ji hakε bε yεlεma mɔgɔw hakε kɔsɔn.

SUPPLEMENTARY VOCABULARY

barada

tea pot

ka x kε y la/kɔnɔ

to put x into y

wεri

glass

ka x suuru

to pour x

pilato

plate

ka x fifa

to ventilate x

furunε

stove

ka x kalaya

to heat up

finfin/sharibon

charcoal

ka x sumaya

to cool

sukaro

sugar

ka x nεnε

to taste

te

tea

ka x wuli

to boil

nanaye

mint

ka x ɲaga

to make x alive

hakε

the quantity

ka x yεlεma

to put x in an other recipient

musi/kangaji

the froth

ka x sananko

to clean x

tuma kelen kelen

from time to time

x ɲε + nombre

the number of the content of x

ka x jigin

to take out of

ka x yelen

to dissolve x

ka x tila

to share x

GRAMMAR The action noun

Action Nouns are formed from verbs by adding the suffix li

Bajɔw ni kɔbafiniw dilali t’a kɔnɔna fili.

Ka _ dila

dilali

(to repare… )

(reparing …)

Verb + li noun

da

weave

dali

weaving

dila

repare

dilali

reparing

taa

go

taali

going

fo

greet

foli

greeting

There are a number of exceptions to this rule which must be memorized. A few of the most common are:

kalan

study

kalan

studying

baara

work

baara

work

min

drink

min

drinking

baro

converse

baro

conversing

sεnε

grow, farm

sεnε

farming

The agentive noun:

Agentive nouns, that is, nouns that refer to the doers of actions, are formed in Bambara by compounding the object and the verb and adding the suffix la and it litteraly translates by the "action doer"

Noun + Verbe + la Noun Vkε + la Noun

geseda

weave thread

gesedala

weaver

baarakε

do work

baarakεla

worker

sεnεkε

do farming

sεnεkεla

farmer

mɔnnikε

do fishing

mɔnnikεla

fisherman

EXERCISES

Translate into Bambara.

  1. We cannot make tea.

  2. Gardening is beneficial.

  3. I am going to work with my village women’s association.

  4. We must work well with our villagers.

  5. I am going to help merchants to improve their business.

  6. I will start with knowing my village labor, then I will start working.

  7. Some volunteers do good jobs.

  8. We are going to help with environment protection.

  9. Our job is not to give money to people, but we are going to help them with the country development works.

Complete the following sentences according to the image

  1. Samba ye ye. A bε wolo baara ka ni dila. A bε _ tigε, k’a kala, k’a nɔrɔ.

  2. Kante bε nεgε baara ka _ ni _ ni jelekisε dila. A b’u kalaw dila ni _ ye. I ka nεgεmafεn o fεn mana tiɲε, a bε se k’o labεn.

  3. Bozo Mama ye ye. Mɔnnikεla dɔw ye sɔmɔnɔw ye. U bε mɔn ni _ ye. A mana jεgεw , a muso bε taa u feere sugu la. Tuma ni tuma, a bε tilen a ka kɔnɔ baji kan.

  4. Alu bε gese _ ni _ ye. A bε se fini cεɲiw dali la. Bajɔw ni kɔbafiniw __ t’a kɔnɔna fili.

  5. Musajan bε _ labεn i n’a fɔ: mobiliw, ani . Olu _ t’a kamana gan. A hakili sigilen don. A ka ka ɲi. A tε dεsε _ la.

Describe your work.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of your work.

SIGIYƆRƆ KUNNAFONNIW

GETTING INFORMED ABOUT ONE’S AREA

Communicative Task:

Objectives:

  1. Ask appropriately, at least, three questions to get informed about your site.

  2. Interview, at least, two resource persons in order to list NGOs and development partners working in your commune.

DIALOG

Musa

Eh! John, i ni faama!

John

Musa, i ni waati. I bε di?

Musa

Alhamudulilayi! I bε dugu jumεn na sisan?

John

N sigilen don le/lo Jitumu mara la, Keleya kεrεfε.

Musa

Keleya lamini duguw ye dugu kɔrɔw ye.

John

Tiɲε don! Dugutigi ko: ale ka dugu in tutigε tuma mεnna kɔsεbε. Dugu in sigira ka kɔn Tubabu fanga ɲε.

Musa

Ha! O ye dugu kɔrɔ ye. Siya jumεnw bε yen?

John

Siya caman. Bamananw ka ca ni siya tɔw ye Jitumu mara kɔnɔ. Fulaw ni Maninkaw fana sigilen bε yen yen. Siginfεw bε sɔrɔ yen, i n’a fɔ Korokow, Marakaw, Kɔrɔbɔrɔw, Dongɔnɔw ani siya wεrεw.

Musa

O ye siya caman ye. I ye yen mɔgɔya kεcogo bεε faamu ka ban?

John

Dɔɔni dɔɔni. Nka yirikurun mεn o mεn ji la, a tε kε bama ye. N bε ka ladaw ni korɔw ɲεɲinin.

Musa

Ayiwa! O de ka ɲi. Ala k’i dεmε.

John

Amiina! K’an bεn!

VOCABULARY

LADAW NI KOKɔRɔW

ladaw

customs

kokɔrɔw

traditions

furu

marriage

tana

taboo

silamε furusiri

religious wedding

dasiri

totem

furu nafolo

dowry

sɔnni

sacrifice

kɔɲɔn

wedding

sɔnnikεyɔrɔ

place for sacrifice

kɔɲɔn so

nuptial chamber/honey moon

seli

feast

denkundi

baptism

seliba

Tabaski

bolokoli

circonscision/excision

selincini

Ramadan feast

saya/banni

death

sunkalo

fasting month

dinε

religion

silamε dinε

Islam

kerecεn dinε

Christianity

SIYAW

ETHNIC GROUPS

  • bamanan

  • maninka

  • maraka

  • fula

  • senufo

  • bɔbɔ

  • miniyanka

  • bozo

  • kadɔ

  • kasɔnka

  • kɔrɔbɔrɔ

  • burudamε

  • suraka.

You can meet all the ethnic groups every where in Mali. But there is a concentration of some ethnic groups in certain regions such as:
REGIONS ETHNIC GROUPS LAST NAME OCCUPATIONS OBSERVATION

Sarakollé/Maraka

Soumaré/Diawara/Doucouré/Silla/Konté

Trade/Agriculture

Sedentary

KAYES

Khassonké/Kasonkha

Sakho/Gassama/Sissoko/Kanté/Diakité

Animal rising/Fishing

Immigration

Malinké/Maninka

Diallo/Sakiliba/Keita/Camara/Konaté

Craft

Semi-nomad

Peulh/Foulani

Konaré/Sissoko/Diallo/Diakité/Sidibé

Maure/Suraka

Sangaré/Bah/Ould

Bambara/Bamanan

Coulibaly/Diarra/Traoré/Koné/Mariko

Trade/Agriculture

Sedentary

KOULIKORO

Malinké/Maninka

Keita/Camara/Konaté/Konaré/Doumbia

Animal rising/Fishing

Immigration

Somono/Bozo

Diabenta/Dienta/Djiré/Karabenta

Craft

Semi-nomad

Maure/Souraka

Ould/

Senoufo

Bamba/Coulibaly/Sanogo/Bagayogo

Trade/Agriculture

Sedentary

SIKASSO

Minianka

WonogoCoulibaly/Cissouma/Bengaly

Animal rising

Dembélé/Wattara

Craft

Peulh/foulani

Diallo/Diakité/Sidibé/Sangaré/Bah

Bambara/Bamanan

Coulibaly/Diarra/Traoré/Koné/Mariko

Trade/Agriculture

Sedentary

SEGOU

Peulh/Foulani

Diallo/Diakité/Sidibé/Sangaré/Bah

Animal rising/Fishing

Nomad

Bozo/Somono

Diabenta/Dienta/Djiré/Karabenta

Craft

Semi-nomad

Bobo/Bowa

Kamata/Sinanta/Dembélé/Kwéné/Dakouo

Dakono/Kamaté

Peulh/foulani

Diallo/Diakité/Sidibé/Sangaré/Bah

Trade/Agriculture

Sedentary

MOPTI

Bozo

Diabenta/Dienta/Djiré/Karabenta/Kamata

Animal rising/Fishing

Nomad

Dogon

Guindo/Tapily/DoloOuologuem/Angoiba

Craft

Semi-nomad

Tembely/Timbiné

Sonraï/Kɔrɔbɔrɔ

Maïga/Touré/Cissé/Askofaré….

Trade/Agriculture

Sedentary

TOMBUKTU

Touareg/Arabe

Ag /Ben /Ould

Animal rising/Fishing

Nomad

Maure

Craft

Semi-nomad

Sonraï/Kɔrɔbɔrɔ

Maïga/Touré/Cissé/Askofaré….

Trade/Agriculture

Sedentary

GAO

Ag /Ben /Ould

Animal rising/Fishing

Nomad

Touareg/Arabe

Maure

Craft

Semi-nomad

Sonraï/Kɔrɔbɔrɔ

Maïga/Touré/Cissé/Askofaré….

Trade/Gardening

Sedentary

KIDAL

Touareg/Arabe

Ag /Ben /Ould

Animal rising/Fishing

Nomad

  • Joking cousin:

    • Sarakollé and Sonraï

    • Malinké and Sarakollé

    • Bozo and Dogon

    • Peulh and Dogon Coulibaly, Diarra and Traoré etc.

    • Coulibaly and Traoré/Dembélé…

GRAMMAR Comparative construction

Comparative constructions can be formed in Bambara with the postpositional phrases according to the following patterns.
  1. Equality

    • X ni Y ye kelen ye

      Mali ladaw ni Ameriki ladaw ye kelen ye wa ?

      Are Malian and American customs the same?

    • X ni Y tε kelen ye

      Mali ladaw ni Ameriki ladaw tε kelen ye.

      Malian customs and American customs are not the same.

    • X ni Y ka kan

      Bamanankan ni julakan ka kan dɔɔni.

      Bamanan and Jula are a bit similar (the same).

    • X ni Y man kan

      Bamanan ladaw ni fula ladaw man kan.

      Bambara customs and fulani ones are not the same.

  2. Superiority

    • X ka + Adj + ni Y ye

      Maninkakan ka kɔrɔ ni bamanankan ye.

      The Malinke language is older than the Bambara language.

  3. Inferiority

    • X man + Adj + ni Y ye

      Fulakan man nɔgɔn ni Bamanankan ye.

      The Fulfulde language is not easier than Bambara language.

  4. Look alike/the same

    • X ni Y bɔlen don/bε/tε

      Amadu ni a denw bɔlen don

      Amadou and his children look alike.

    • X bɔlen don/tε Y fε

      Farafina kokɔrɔ dɔw bɔlen don le/lo Ameriki ta dɔw fε.

      Some African customs look like some American ones.

EXERCISES

Answer the following questions:

  1. Furusiri bε kε cogodi Mali la?

  2. Furu ladaw ye mun ye?

  3. Mun bε kε furusiri don le/lo Ameriki?

  4. Munna musow tε furu jɔɔna Ameriki?

  5. Munna muso caman furu dagalen tε Ameriki?

  6. Mun ye furusa caya Ameriki?

JAMA HAKILI JAKABƆ

LEADING A COMMUNITY MEETING

Communicative Task:

Objectives:

  1. Use, at least, three expressions to ask for the audience’s patience during a real meeting.

  2. Use three appropriate expressions to introduce or to end a meeting in your community.

  3. Ask two questions to get people’s opinions on subjects in a real situation.

DIALOG

John

A’ ni wula yankaw, an tilenna hεrε la, Ala k’an si hεrε la.

Jeliba

Nba! A ni wula, aw bisimila! A ye dɔ di.

John

Saha! An ma na baasi la, an ye Saniya baarakεlaw ye. An nana walasa an bε se ka hakilina falen falen dugu saniya cogo kan.

Jeliba

Dugutigi, ayiwa kuma tε! U ko, k’u nana k’an dεmε ka dugu saniya.

Dugutigi

Jeliba, a fɔ dunanw ye: k’u nali diyar’an ye. K’u bisimila!

John

Gεlεya jumεn bε yan saniyako la?

Amadu

Ne bε kuma ɲinin.

Jeliba

Kuma b’i bolo, Amadu.

Amadu

Ne hakili la, ɲaman ani jinɔgɔko gεlεya de b’an kan bi.

John

Kuma ɲεna! Aw hakili la fεrε jumεnw bε se ka sɔrɔ olu la? + (makan caman….)

Jeliba

A ye hakεto, an ka ɲɔgɔn lamεn!

Bakari

Baasi tε, ne hakili la, ni bεε bε se ka taa ɲaman bɔn dugu kɔfε yɔrɔ kelen na, o bε fisaya. Ani fana, an k’an hakili to ji saniyali la.

John

Yankaw, anw hakili la, bεε ye famuya sɔrɔ tɔnsigi in kɔnɔ. Aw ni ce, aw ni baraji!
Ala k’an bεn a ɲɔgɔn wεrε ma.
Sisan an b’a fε ka sira ɲinin.

VOCABULARY

  • To welcome:

    • aw bisimila!

    • dɔ di/dɔ fɔ

    • kuma b’i bolo

    • aw nali diyara anw ye.

  • To ask for the speech:

    • ne bε kuma ɲinin jama fε

    • kuma ka gεlεn

    • n’i donna min gasi la, o ka yafa n ma

    • anw ma na baasi la

    • juguma tε

    • Ala sago, aw sago

  • To approve/to agree with someone:

    • hatε!

    • naamu! tiɲε!

    • a’ ma kuma mεn!

    • a’ ma kɔrɔfɔ mεn!

  • To remind people to be quiet:

    • aw ye hakεto!

    • aw ye sabali!

    • aw ye ɲɔgɔn lamεn!

    • Ala k’an son sabali la!

    • n bε yafa ɲinin jama fε.

  • To take leave:

    • n b’a fε ka sira ɲinin.

    • * To thank the audience:

    • aw ni ce! aw ni baraji!

    • Ala k’aw sara!

    • Ala k’an to ɲɔgɔn ye!

    • Ala k’an kafolen to!

    • Ala k’an ɲε k’a d’anw ma!

    • Ala k’an bεn a ɲɔgɔn wεrε ma.

GRAMMAR The demonstrative adjective nin

The demonstrative nin can occur both before and after the noun it modifies:
nin cε…

this man…

cε nin…

this man…

  • When following the noun, nin can always have the reduced form:

nin cε in…

this man…

cε in…

this man…

  • The relative pronoun min

Bambara has only one relative pronoun min which corresponds to who, which, that, whose in English.
  1. In subject position (Relative clause)

    Jon ye fini san?

    Who bought the cloth?

    Cε min taara.

    The man who left.

    Cε min taara, o ye fini san.

    The man who left, (he) bought the cloth.

Cε min nana surafana dun, o ye n terikε ye.;: The man who came to dinner, that one is my friend.

+ The man who came to dinner is my friend.

In the main sentence, the demonstrative pronoun o is used to refer back to the noun followed by the relative clause marker min.
  1. In object position (Relative clause)

    N bε cε min fo …

    The man whom I greet …

  2. In adverbial phrases

Adverbial phrases such as those of place, time, and manner can contain relative clauses, equivalent to sentences such as the following:
I tun bε yɔrɔ min, ne tun bε yen.

I was at the place that you were/I was where you were.

I tun bε yen tuma min, ne tun bε yen o tuma.

I was there when you were there.

I y’a kε cogo min, n y’a kε ten.

I did it in the way that you did it.

EXERCISES

Look for the meaning of this proverb: “I dege mɔnni na, o ka fisa ni don le/lo go don le/lo jεgε deli ye.”

Grammatical Notes: KƆBILAW SUFFIX

NSANA

PROVERB

Boloŋɔnnin kelen tε se ka bεlε ta!

Look for the meaning of this proverb and try to use it appropriately

  • The suffix lan

lan is a suffix that can be placed on a verb to derive the instrument that performs the action described by the verb. If the verb ends with a nasalized consonant or vowel, this suffix becomes nan.

sigi to seat/sit (down) sigilan a chair

tigε

to cut

tigεlan

cutter

min

to drink

jiminnan

water drinker

  • The suffix ntan (without the property of…) ≠ ma (having the property of…) NOTE: ntan is a suffix equivalent to –less or without in English. ma acts much like the suffix –y in English.

warintan moneyless kɔkɔma salty

denntan

childless

sukaroma

sugary

kunntan

headless

nɔnɔma

milky

  • The suffix ta

ta is a suffix added to verbs which is equivalent to –able in English; that is the thing in question is subject to or able to undergo the action of the verb.

san to buy santa buyable (to sale)

dun

to eat

dunta

edible

min

to drink

minta

drinkable

  • The suffix bali

bali is a suffix added to verbs which is equivalent to un…able in English; that is the thing in question is not subject to or able to undergo the action of the verb.

jaabi to answer jaabibali unanswered

malo

to be ashmed

malobali

unashamed

dun

to eat

dunbali

inedible

  • The suffix ka

ka/kaw is a suffix which can be added to all nouns of place to express the meaning person of/from…, people of….

Bamakokaw people of Bamako

yanka

person from here

  • The suffix ya

The adjective plus ya is in most cases the same form that is used for the noun counterparts of the adjectival verb. This is the form that is used to characterize, for example, abstract qualities like:

bilenya redness goniya heat

nalomaya

stupidity

sumaya

slowness

When functioning as active verbs, some adjectives do not require ya The following chart lits the adjectival verbs and the active verbal and niminal counterparts:

Adjective Verb Noun

ca

ka (__) caya

caya

di

ka (__) diya

diya

bon

ka (__) bonya

bonya

jan

ka (__) janya

janya

jugu

ka (__) juguya

juguya

ka (__) jεya/jε

jεya

fin

ka (__) finya/fin

finya

girin

ka (__) girinya

girinya

gεlεn

ka (__) gεlεya

gεlεya

kεnε

ka (__) kεnεya

kεnεya

kɔrɔ

ka (__) kɔrɔ

kɔrɔya

kumu

ka (__) kumu

kumuya

ɲi

ka (__) ɲε

ɲumanya

dɔgɔn

ka (__) dɔgɔya

dɔgɔya

misεn

ka (__) misεya

misεya

timi

ka (__) timiya

timiya

ya is a suffix which functions to create abstract nouns. It is equivalent to –ness or hood in English.

cεya

manliness

denya

childhood

  • ya can also be added to noun-adjective combinations:

tulogεlεnya

stubbornness

cεkolonya

cowardice

Grammatical Notes: ƝƐBILAW

PREFIX

NSANA

PROVERB

ɲininkalikεla tε fili!

Look for the meaning of this proverb and try to use it appropriately

  • The prefix la

In Bambara any verb can take the prefix la, giving the verb a causative or indirect agency meaning:
A ye kalanden lataa

He/she caused the student to go./He/she had the student go.

  • Many verbs, however, have developed specialized meanings in the causative which cannot be predicted as the sum of their parts.

ka _ mεn to hear ka _ lamεn to listen

ka _ dege

to teach

ka _ ladege

to imitate

ka _ minε

to take

ka _ laminε

to answer

ka _ bεn

to meet

ka _ labεn

to prepare

  • In these cases, the verb forms with la have to be learned as if they were not at all related to other verb forms.

FOLI - MƆGƆ ƝƐ JIRA MƆGƆ WƐRƐ LA – FOLI BILA

GREETING – INTRODUCING ONESELF – SAYING GOOBYE

Communicative Task:

NSANA

PROVERB

Dɔɔnin-dɔɔnin kɔnɔnin b’a ɲaga da!

Look for the meaning of this proverb and try to use it appropriately

DIALOG

Amadu

I ni sɔgɔma, n balimamuso!
Good morning sister!

Sali

Nse, i ni sɔgɔma, n balimakε! Hεrε sira?
Good morning, brother! Did you spend the night in peace?

Amadu

Hεrε dɔrɔn! I ka kεnε?
Only in peace! How are you?

Sali

Tɔɔrɔ tε! I tɔgɔ?
I’m fine! What’s your name?

Amadu

N tɔgɔ Amadu Jara. E dun?
My name is Amadu Jara. And you?

Sali

N tɔgɔ Sali Tarawele. I Jara! My name is Sali Tarawele. Jara!

Amadu

Nba! Tarawele muso, i bε bɔ min? Nba! Tarawele. Where are you from?

Sali

N bε bɔ Segu. Jarakε, i fana bε bɔ Segu? I’m from Segou. Jara, are you from Segou too?

Amadu

Eh, ayi! N bε bɔ yan. Euh, No! I’m from here.

Sali

O ka ɲi! Ala ka tile hεrε caya! That’s good! May you have a peaceful day!

Amadu

Amiina! K’an b’u fo! Amen! Say hi to them!

Sali

U n’a mεn! They will hear it !

SANNI

SHOPPING

Communicative task:

NSANA

PROVERB

Ni sugufiyε girinna, bεε bolo b’i kunna minan na!

Look for the meaning of this proverb and try to use it appropriately

DIALOG

Samba

Kiliyan! Kiliyan! Na yan! Bagi ɲumanw bε yan! Customer! Customer! Come here! There are good fabrics here!

Amadu

I ni sɔgɔma! N bε bagi ɲumanw fε, nka da duman! Good morning! I want good fabrics but cheap!

Samba

Ola, i sera a yɔrɔ la. Ne ka bagiw bεε da ka nɔgɔn. U lajε. Then, you are at the right place. All my fabrics are cheap. Look at them.

Amadu

Nin mεtiri joli ye? How much is the meter?

Samba

N b’o da diya i la! O mεtiri ye kεmε saba ni bi duuru lɔɔru ye. I give you a good price! The meter is one thousand and seven hundred and fifty. Kɔmi e don, ile le/lo barika b’a la I can reduce it for you.

Amadu

Ayiwa! A barika, caman bɔ a la. Ok! Reduce it, reduce a lot.

Samba

A ka ɲi forokiya la. I b’a san joli? It’s good for a bubu. How much do you buy it?

Amadu

A to kεmε fila la. N bε mεtiri wɔɔrɔ san. Give it at two thousand. I buy six meters.

Samba

A kari kari ye kεmε saba. Nka, i bε se ka kεmε fila ni bi duuru lɔɔru sara. The last price is one thousand and five hundred. But you can pay one thousand and two hundred and fifty.

Amadu

I ni ce! Mεtiri wɔɔrɔ ye wa fila ni dɔrɔmε kεmε ye. Hon! warimisεn segin. Thank you! The six meters are ten thousand and five hundred. Take it! Give back the change.

Samba

Fini ni warimisεn filε. I kεnε k’a kɔrɔ! Here are the fabrics and the change. May you feel good when it gets older.

Amadu

Amiina! Ka sugu diya! Amen! May you sell out!

YƆRƆW TAMASERECOGO

ASKING/GIVING DIRECTIONS

Communicative Task:

NSANA

PROVERB

Sen kelen tε sira bɔ!

Look for the meaning of this proverb and try to use it appropriately

DIALOG

Umaru

A’ ni sɔgɔma! Good morning!

Amadu

Nba, a’ ni sɔgɔma! Dɔ di! Good morning! Say something!

Umaru

Baasi tε! A’ bε hakε to! N bε dugutigi ka so de ɲinin. Nothing bad! Excuse me! I’m looking for the chief’s house.

Amadu

Dutigi ka so bε an kεrεfε, n bε se ka taa ɲɔgɔn fε. Chief’s house is next to us, we can go together.

Umaru

I ni ce! A sira ɲεfɔ n ye, n yεrε kelen bε se ka taa. Thanks! Tell me where the road is, I can go by my own.

Amadu

Ayiwa! I tilen nin sira kelen in fε. I bε kare saba tεmεn,o kɔ, fara i numan fε. Ok! Go straight on this same road. Pass three streets, then turn left. Da naaninan don le/lo i kini fε. Mangorosunba bε soda la. It is the fourth door on your right. There is a big mango tree at the door.

Umaru

I ni baraji! K’an bεn! Thank you! See you!

Amadu

K’an bε! Ka se ni i ɲuman ye! See you! May you get there in peace!

Umaru

Amiina! Amen!

MƆGƆ NI FƐNW TAMASERE COGO

DESCRIBING A PERSON, AN OBJECT AND A PLACE

Communicative Task:

NSANA

PROVERB

Don go don le/lo tulo bε taa kalanso!

Look for the meaning of this proverb and try to use it appropriately

TEXT

Nin muso in man jan, a man surun. A ɲεkisεw ka kunba, a ɲinw jεlen don. A cεkaɲi. A nison ka di tuma bεε. Mɔgɔ sεbε don.

Details

This woman is not tall, she is not short. Her eyes are big, her teeth are white. She is beautiful. She is always happy. She is a good person.

FARIKOLO LAHALAW

DESCRIBING ONE’S MENTAL AND PHYSICAL STATE

Communicative Task:

NSANA

PROVERB

Bana kunbεn ka fisa ni bana furakεli ye!

Look for the meaning of this proverb and try to use it appropriately

DIALOG

1
Fanta

I ni sɔgɔma, Bakari. I nisɔn man di, mun b’i la?+ Good morning, Bakari. You are not happy. What’s wrong?

Bakari

N fari man di n na.+ I am not feeling well.

Fanta

I yɔrɔ jumεn b’i dimi?+ Which part of your body hurts you?

Bakari

N ɲin de bε n dimi kojugu bi.+ My tooth hurts me so badly.

Fanta

I ye fura ta wa?+ Did you take medecine?

Bakari

Ayi, n bεna taa dɔgɔtɔrɔso la.+ No, I am going to the hospital.

Fanta

Ala ka nɔgɔyakε, k’a ban pewu!+ May you feel bether and you entirely recovered.

Bakari

Amiina. Ala ka dugaw minε.+ Amen. May God accept the blessings.

Fanta

Amiina.+ Amen!

2
Fanta

I ni sɔgɔma, Bakari. Munna an m’i ye surɔ? Good morning , bakari. Why didn’t we see you last night?

Bakari

N tun man kεnε. I was sick.

Fanta

Ee! Mun tun b’i la? He! What was wrong with you?

Bakari

N kungolo ye n dimi kojugu kunun wulada. I had a bad headach yesterday afternoon. Sufε, n ma se ka sunɔgɔ, n fari bεε tun ka kalan. At night, I couldn’t sleep, my body was hirting me.

Fanta

O bε sɔrɔ sumaya ye dε? That might be malaria.

Bakari

N hakili la, a bε sɔrɔ o ye. N bεna taa dɔgɔtɔrɔso la. I think that’s it. I shall go to the hospital.

Fanta

I ka kan k’i yεrε tanga susuw ma. You should prevent yourself against mousquitos.

Bakari

Tiɲε! N bεna sange sulen damadɔ ɲinin n ka denbaya ye. That’s true! I’ll look for some treated mosquito nets for my family. Ola, sumaya ni bana misεnw tεna an tɔɔrɔ. Then we won’t have any problem with sicknesses.

Fanta

Ala ka nɔgɔyakε, ka tɔɔrɔ dɔgɔya! May you feel better!

Bakari

Amiina. Ala ka dugaw minε. Amen. May God accept the blessings.

Fanta

Amiina. Amen.

DELINAKOW

TALKING ABOUT DAILY ACTIVITIES

Communicative Task:

NSANA

PROVERB

Dugu bila ka fisa lada wuli ye!

Look for the meaning of this proverb and try to use it appropriately

TEXT

Musow ka baara dugumisεnw kɔnɔ.

Dugumisεnw kɔnɔ, musow ka baara ka ca. U bε wuli kabini fajiri. U bε fɔlɔ ka ji bɔ kɔlɔn na. U bε tasuma mεnε ka koliji kalaya. U bε yɔrɔw furan ka sɔro ka daraka tobi. Daraka mana dun, u bε minan nɔgɔw ko. U bε susulikε, u bε fini nɔgɔw ko, u bε denw ladon. Mali dugumisεn musow sεgεnnen!

Women’s job/work in small villages.

In small villages, women have lot of work. They wake up (early) since dawn. First of all they take water from the well. They make fire to heat washing water. They sweep places and then cook the breakfast. After the breakfast, they wash dishes. They pound, wash laundries, they take care of kids. In small villages women are tired!

TAAMAW

TALKING ABOUT TRAVELING

Communicative Task:

NSANA

PROVERB

Cεkɔrɔba san tan bulon kɔnɔ, Denmisεnnin san tan jamana kɔnɔ, Olu de bε se ka barokε!

Look for the meaning of this proverb and try to use it appropriately

TEXT

Taamaw

Mali mɔgɔw bε taama kɔsɔbε duniya kɔnɔ. U bε taa yɔrɔ caman na. I b’u sɔrɔ Farafinna jamanaw bεε la. Mali denmisεnw bε taama farajεla jamanaw fana kɔnɔ.

Mali kɔnɔ, mɔgɔw ka taama ka suma, barisa siraw man ɲin. Bolimafεnw man ca, ani u tε se ka taa yɔrɔ bεε. Togodamɔgɔw bε bɔ dugu ni dugu u sen na, nεgεsow la, wotorow la, wala bagaw kan i n’a fɔ: faliw, sow, misiw, ɲɔgɔmεw. Mɔgɔw bε bato ta Kulikoro ni Gao cε, sisikuru bε bɔ Bamako fo kayes.

Details

Trips/travels

Malians travel a lot in the world. They go to many places. You find them in all the countries in Africa. The young Malian people also travel to European countries.

In Mali, people travel rarely, because roads are bad. There are not enough means of transportation, and they can’t go everywhere. Villagers go from village to village on foot, by bikes, by donkey cars, or by animals like: donkeys, horses, cows, and camels.

People take boat in between Koulikoro and Gao, train leaves Bamako for Kayes.

Sirakoro taama

Ne sera Sirakoro ntεnεn don, le/lo uti kalo tile mugan ni segin san ba fila ni wɔrɔ Mobili donna dugu kɔnɔ ka bεn ni fitiri ye, o y’a sɔrɔ san nana. An taara dugutigi ka so. A y’an bisimila koɲuman.

An sira, dugu jεlen an sɔrɔla ka taa dugu maabaw caman fo (Perefe dankan, Mεri, Dɔgɔtɔrɔ kuntigi, Muso kuntigi, Alimami, Pasitεri, cεmisεn kuntigi, ani n ka karamɔgɔ). Wula fε, dugutigi ni a ka kɔnseyew y’an bisimila a ka so. An y’an nali kun fɔ u ye. A diyara u ye kosεbε, u ko an k’an bisimila. O kɔfε ne ni n ka karamɔgɔ ye kalan daminε. Aa! Sisan kɔni, ne ye bamanankan caman faamu.

Alamisa don, le/lo uti kalo tile bisaba ni kelen, sɔgɔma dizεri waati, dugu musow bεε ni jenbe nana ka donkε n jatigiyala, ka ne fo. An ye donkε kosεbε.

Jɔn ko allah, Sirakoro ka di!!!

— Fox Emily
The trip to Sirakoro

I got to Sirakoro on Monday, on august 28th 2006. When the car got into the village it was sun set, it rained. We went to the chiefs’ house. He welcomed us well.

We spent the night, and in the next morning we went to greet the village many important people (Sous- prefet, mayor, the health center leader, woman leader, the imam, the pastor, youth president, and our teacher.) In the afternoon, the village chief and his counselors welcomed us in his house. We told them the reason of our visit. They liked it and gave us sit. After that my tutor and I started learning. Ha! Now I understand lot of Bambara.

On Thursday, August 31st, all the women came in to my host family with drums and danced in the morning around 10 am just to greet me. We dance a lot. Truly, Sirakoro is good!!!

— Fox Emily

DIALOG

dɔgɔkun kelen taama

A week trip

A

N nana n sara i la, n bεna taa dɔgɔkun kelen taama na sini.+ I inform you, I’m going to a week trip tomorrow.

B

Eh! Sini ? Ayiwa, ka taa ka segin nɔgɔya.+ He! Tomorrow? Ok! May you go and come back in peace.

A

A miina, ka ɲɔgɔn ye nɔgɔya, ka hεrε fɔ n kɔ.+ Amen, may we see each other, may you have peace after me.

B

k’an b’u fo! Ka segin n’i ɲuman ye. I k’an sama. I delila ka se yen wa?+ Say hi to them! May you come back in peace. Bring me something. Have you been there before?

A

Ayi, n ma se yen fɔlɔ. Ni alah sɔnna, n bεna aw sama.+ No, I haven’t yet. I’ll bring you something, god willing.

DUMUNIW

TALKING ABOUT MEALS

Communicative Task:

NSANA

PROVERB

Bɔrε lakolon tε jɔ!

Look for the meaning of this proverb and try to use it appropriately

TEXT

Dumuniw ani dumunikεyɔrɔ ladaw.

Mali ka bon, a siyaw fana ka ca. O n’a ta o ta, siyaw ka dumuniw n’u ka dumuniyɔrɔ ladaw man jan ɲɔgɔn na kosεbε. Mali siyaw caman bε to, basi, dεgε, mɔni, seri, samε ani malokini dun. U bεε bε dumuni kε siɲε saba tile kɔnɔ: daraka, tilelafana ani surafana. Musow ni cεw tε dumunikε ɲɔgɔn fε yɔrɔ caman na Mali la. Cεw wali musow bε dumunikε ɲɔgɔn fε minεn kelen kɔnɔ. Danfara dɔw bε siyaw ni ɲɔgɔn cε. Bamananw bε seri sukarotan walima tosira kε daraka ye. Bamannanw fana ka surafana n’u ka tilelafana caman ye to ye. Malokini bε tobi nisɔndiya donw dɔrɔn. Kɔrɔbɔrɔw bε furufuru kε daraka ye. U caman ka tilelafana ni surafana ye malokini ye. Basi ka di marakaw ye kɔsɔbε. Siyaw dɔw bε barika da dumuni kɔfε nka dɔw t’a da. Dumuniyɔrɔ ye kalansoba ye Mali la.

Food and eating places customs

Mali is big; there are lot of ethnic groups. Despite that, ethnic groups eating places customs are not so different. Most of the ethnic groups eat tô, couscous, dègè, porridge (rice – millet), and rice. They all eat three times a day: breakfast, lunch and dinner. In most of places in Mali, men and women don’t eat together. Men or women eat together in the same common bowl. There are some differences between the ethnic groups. Bambara have rice porridge or the last night left over for breakfast. They also have tô for lunch and dinner. Rice is cooked only during feasts. Sonrhaï people eat cakes for breakfast. Most of them have rice for lunch and dinner. Soninke people like couscous. Some ethnic groups thank after meals but some don’t. Eating-places are great schools in Mali.

Tamatina dilancogo

How to make tomato sauce

  • Dilannifεw/Ingredients

  1. amati mɔnenba

    ripe tomatoes

  2. tigatulu

    peanut oil

  3. jabakεnε

    onion

  4. kɔgɔ

    salt

  5. ji

    water

    • Dilanniminεw/tools

  1. barama/fugantasa

    cooking pot/bowl

  2. furunε

    stove

  3. finfin

    charcoal

  4. kutu

    spoon

  5. muru

    knife

    • Dilancogo/how to make

  1. Finfin kε furunε kɔnɔ, tasuma kε finfin na. A fifa.

    Make fire with the charcoal in the stove.

  2. Ni tasuma kamina, barama wala kasilɔri sigi tasuma kan. Ji dɔ k’a kɔnɔ.

    Put some water in the pot and put it on the fire.

  3. I tεgε ko k’a jε. Tamati ni jaba ko k’u jε.

    Wash your hands, the tomatoes and the onions.

  4. Tamati kε ji kalaman na. U kelen kelen ta, u fara b’u la.

    Put the tomatoes in the boiling water and shell them one by one.

  5. U bila tasa jεlen dɔ kɔnɔ. U nɔɔni.

    Make paste with the tomatoes in a clean bowl.

  6. Barama sigi tasuma kan tuguni. Tulu hakε min bε bεn i ka tamati ma, o kε barama kɔnɔ.

    Put your cooking pot on fire and put the quantity of oil you need according to the quantity of your tomato paste.

  7. Tulu mana kalaya, tamati dɔɔni dɔɔni kε tulu la. To ka kutu kε k’a lamaga.

    When the oil in boiling add the tomato paste little by little and with a spoon stir it regularly.

  8. Jaba tigε-tigε. A kε tamati na kan.

    Cut the onions in small pieces and add them to the tomato paste.

  9. kɔgɔ kε tamati na la, dɔɔni dɔɔni. To k’a nεnε.

    Then add some salt and taste it.

  10. Duncogo n’a lamaracogo

    How to eat and keep it

  11. Nin tamatina in bε se ka kε sogo jeninen, jεgε jirannen, woso, wala kɔmitεri balabalalen kan, k’u dun. Waa, a ka di kɔsεbε.

    This tomato sauce can be eaten with fried meat and fish or with sweet potato and french fries.

  12. A lamaracogo man gεlεn. I b’a kε buteli dɔ kɔnɔ ka tulu dɔɔni k’a kan k’a lasago yɔrɔ sumannen na.

    It is easy to keep. Put in a clean bottle, add some oil and leave it in a cool place.

DIALOG

Umaru

I ni sɔgɔma! Good morning!

Amadu

Nba. Cε! a kεra di? An m’i ye gεrεn na surɔ dε! Nba! What happened? We haven’t seen you last night at the grin.

Umaru

Foyi ma kε! N tun bε furusiridɔn yɔrɔ la. A kεra ɲεnajεba ye. Nothing happened. I was at a wedding party. It was such a big party.

Amadu

A diyara wa? Was it good?

Umaru

Kojugu! Dumuni ma kε foyi ye! An y’an kɔnɔ fa ani ka dɔnkε fo ka dugu jε. A lot! There was a much food! We ate and danced a lot till the next morning.

Amadu

Ala ka kε furu ye! May it be a successful marriage.

Umaru

Amiina! Amen!

ƝANAJƐW

TALKING ABOUT FEASTS AND LEISURE

Communicative Task:

NSANA

PROVERB

Dunun diya tuma y’a fara tuma ye!

Look for the meaning of this proverb and try to use it appropriately

DIALOG

1. Umaru:: An ni sɔgɔma! Good morning!

Amadu

Nba. Cε! a kεra di? An m’i ye gεrεn na surɔ dε! Nba! What happened? We haven’t seen you last night at the grin.

Umaru

Tiɲε don. N tun bε furusiridɔn yɔrɔ la. A kεra ɲanajεba ye. That’s true. I was at a wedding party. It was such a big party.

Amadu

A diyara wa? Was it good?

Umaru

Kojugu. Jamaba de tun bε yen. An ye dumunikε ani ka dɔnkε fo ka dugu jε. A lot! There were a lot of people. We ate and danced till the next morning.

Amadu

Fɔlifεn jumεn tun bε yen? Which instruments were there?

Umaru

An ye balani dɔn fo k’an sen kari. We danced xalophone till our legs got broken.

2. Jelikε:: An ni su! Good afternoon (night)

Den-fa

Nba , aw ni su! Nba, good afternoon (night)

Jelikε

Hεrε tilenna wa? Did you spend a peaceful day?

Den-fa

Hεrε dɔrɔn. Only in peace.

Jelikε

Mɔgɔ nakun ka fisa i yεrε ye. The reason of once’s present is more important than yourself.

N’i ye n wulilen ye ka se yan, juguman tε.
If you sea me here, it’s nothing bad.
A kun ye furu sira ye.
It’s for a wedding process.
Keyitalakaw ye woro tan ni fura siri, k’u ɲε bɔra aw denmuso Fanta fε.
The Keïtas brought ten cola nuts to ask for our daughter Fanta hand.
U dun t’a ŋaniya ni foyi ye n’u denkε Bakari         furumuso tε.
They want her to be their son Bakari’s wife.
Woro tan filε n’a bε bεn aw ma, o bε diy’an ye kɔsεbε.
Here are the ten cola nuts, if you accept we would appreciate.
Den-fa

An bε woro minε fɔlɔ. Den bε yan, den baw bε yan. We first take the cola nuts. The daughter and the moms are here.

N’an y’olu ɲininka, olu mana jaabi min di,         an n’o fɔ aw ye.
We’ll ask them and let you know the answer.
Nin diyar’an ye, a bεnn’an ma. Hakεto b’o kan.
We do appreciat that, and it honour us.
Jelikε

Aw Keyita! Ala k’a ɲεn k’a d’an ma. N bε sira ɲinin. Keïta! May God help us. We ask the permission to leave.

Den-fa

Kuyate! Sira dir’i ma. K’an b’u fo! Kouyaté! You can go. Say hi to them!

Jelikε

U n’a mεn! Ka su hεrε d’an ma! They will hear it! May we have a peaceful night!

MƆGƆ WELELI

ACCEPT OR DECLINE AN INVITATION

Communicative Task:

NSANA

PROVERB

Denmisεnnin min bε yaalabakε, o t’a ba su ye!

Look for the meaning of this proverb and try to use it appropriately

DIALOG

1. Mamu: Fanta! i ni fama sa! Fanta! It’s been a long time!

Fanta: An bεε ni fama. It’s been a long time for we all.

Mamu: I tununna dε! You got lost!

Fanta: O kεra! N tun taara dugu la. That’s true! I was in a trip.

Mamu: I nani diyara n ye. Tiɲε don, le/lo n dɔgɔmuso ka furusiri bε kε sibiri don. It’s a pleasure that you come back. It’s true, my little sister’s wedding is on Saturday.

N’i b’a masɔrɔ, n b’a fε i ka na o la. An bε ɲanajεba kε wula fε.
If you have time, I want you to come. We’ll have a big party in the afternoon.

Fanta: Basi tε, ni Ala sɔnna i bεna n ye. No problem, you’ll see me god willing.

2. Umaru: I ni wula, Susan! Good afternoon, Susan!

Susan: Nse! Umaru, hεrε tilenna? Nse! Umaru, did you have a peaceful day?

Umaru: N bε Ala tanu! A bε diy’an ye n’i bε se ka n’an ka furusiridɔn yɔrɔ la bi su in na. I thank God! I would appreciate if you can come to our wedding party to night.

Susan: Bi su in na! Haa! N tεn’a masɔrɔ. Tonight! Ha! I won’t hive time.

N bolo degunnen don [.red]#le/lo# barisa ɲɔgɔnye kεrεnkεrεnnen dɔ bε bolo.
I am busy because I have a special meeting.
A kεra baara ye. Kana jigin n na. Ala ka siɲε wεrε jir'an na.
That’s tricky. Don’t be mad at me. Next time.

Umaru: N tεna jigin i la. Ala ka dugawu minε! I won’t be mad at you. May God accept our blessings

Susan: Amiina! Amen!

DƐMƐ ƝININ

ASKING FOR HELP

Communicative Task:

NSANA

PROVERB

Funtinε bε yɔrɔ min, bεnkan tε yen!

Look for the meaning of this proverb and try to use it appropriately

DIALOG

Sarah

Ee! Mun kεra? N ka nεgεso bila! I bε taalen ni n ka nεgεso ye min? A ye son bεn! A' ye n dεmε!
He! What’s going on? Leave my bike! Where are you taking my bike? Thief! Thief! Help me!

Musa

Jɔn kulekan bε yan? Mun y’i sɔrɔ? Jɔn donna i kan?
Who is yelling here? What happens to you? Who got in your house?

Sarah

A’ ye na! A’ ye bɔ! Son taara ni n ka nεgεso ye. N b’aw deli. A’y’a kunbεn! A’ye ɲε n ma!
Come over! Come out! The thief took my bike away! I beg you. Catch him! Help me!

Musa

I hakili sigi. A tε se ka taa yɔrɔ jan.
Calm down. He cannot go far.

Passant

Kule dabila n balimamuso. U ye i ka son minε. A ni nεgεso b’u bolo ka na.
Stop yelling my sister. They got your thief. They are come with him and your bike.

Sarah

O ye Ala tanu ye. Aw ni ce! Aw ni baraji! Hakεto! Musa, n hakili la, n ka kan ka sokɔlɔsila dɔ ɲinin min bεna n ka dukɔnɔna kɔlɔsi, k’a janto da la.
Thanks to God. Thank you! Thank you very much! Please! Musa, I think, I should look for a guardian who will look after my house,, to take care of my door.

Musa

O ka nɔgɔn. An bεna mɔgɔ sεbε ɲinin i ye. Hali ni mɔgɔ wεrε fɔra i kɔ, ale na sɔrɔ yan.
That’s easy. We’ll look for a good person. Even if someone else comes after you, he will be here.

WAATIW LAHALAW

TALKING ABOUT THE WEATHER

Communicative Task:

NSANA

PROVERB

I ma min fɔ i siriyɔrɔ la, kan’o fɔ i foniyɔrɔ la!

Look for the meaning of this proverb and try to use it appropriately

DIALOG

John

Amadu, i ni sɔgɔma.
Good morning Amadu.

Amadu

Nba, hεrε sira John?
Nba, did you spend a good night?

John

Hεrε dɔrɔn. N bε taa bɔ n terikε ka foro la ka na.
Peace only. I’m visting my friend’s field.

Amadu

Ee! I t’i jɔ dɔɔni. E ɲε tε sanfinnenba la?
He! Wait a little bit. It is going rain.

John

E ko nin san bε na sisan?
Is it going rain?

Amadu

Funteni b’a kɔrɔ cogo min na, ne miiri la a bε na.
It is hot, in my opinion it will rain.

John

Funteni ye sanji tamasere ye aw fε yan wa?
Is the heat a sign of rain here?

Amadu

ɔwɔ, nka o dɔrɔn tε dε! San tamasere dɔwεrεw ye kabanɔgɔ, tile bɔ cogo ani fiɲε ci cogo ye. Hali kɔnɔ dɔw bε san kibaruya fɔ an sεnεkεlaw ye.
Yeah! But that’s not all! Another sign is the cloud, the way the sun appears and the way the wind blows. We farmers are even told by some birds.

John

Kabako! Ni n bε taa, n bεna n ka sanji minεfini ta. I ni ce. Amadu, n mana segin, an bε se ka barokε Mali waatiw ni Ameriki taw kan wa?
Amazing! When going, I’ll take my umbrella with me. Thank you. Amadu, if I come, could we talk about the seasons in Mali and the ones in America?

Amadu

O bε diya n ye kosɔbε. Ola n yεrε bεna faamuya dɔ sɔrɔ Ameriki kan. K’an bεn sɔɔni.
I’ll like it a lot. I’ll know more about America. See you soon.

John

K’an bεn! Ka hεrε fɔ n kɔ.
See you! May you have peace after me.

Amadu

Amina! K’i ɲuman segin!
Amen! May you come back safely!

SEKO NI DƆNKOW

TALKING ABOUT ONE’S SKILLS

Communicative Task:

NSANA

PROVERB

Jirikuru mεn o mεn ji la, a tε kε bama ye!

Look for the meaning of this proverb and try to use it appropriately

TEXT

Sekow ni bololabaaraw

Bololabaarakεlaw jɔyɔrɔ ka bon kɔsɔbε jamana in kɔnɔ. Kabini lawale la, an ka minεnw fanba bεε bε dilan bololabaarakεlaw de fε. Dugu si tε taa u kɔ. Ulu de b’an mago caman ɲε. I bε garankεw, gesedalaw, numuw, sanu ni warijε fagalaw, dagadilannaw, kɔlɔnsennaw, sojɔlaw, jiridεsεlaw, kundigilaw, mekanisiɲεw, menizenw sɔrɔ an ka dugu caman kɔnɔ. Nin seko ni dɔnko mɔgɔw fana tε taa sεnεkεlaw, nakɔbaaralaw, bagangεnnaw, mɔnikεlaw, dosow ni jeliw ko.

Aptitudes and crafts

Artisans play an important role in the country. Since the past, craftsmen make lot of our tools. No village can work without them. They meet most of our needs Shoe makers, blacksmiths, jewelers, potters, well diggers, masons, Sculptors, hairdressers, mechanics, carpenters are in most of our villages. Farmers, gardeners, animal risers, fishermen, hunters and griots are important.

DIALOG

Amadu

N terikε John, e yεrε bε mun baarakε an ka dugu in kɔnɔ? John my friend, what do you do as job in our village?

John

ɲinikali ɲuman! Ne ye yiriforow ni kungoyiri nafamaw lakanabaa wɔlɔntεri ye. N bε baarakε sεnεkεlaw ni nakɔtigiw fε. N bε ladilikan di mɔgɔw ma yirituru ni yiriw ladoncogo ɲuman kan. N bε dugu mɔgɔw dεmε yirishεnw sɔrɔ cogo n’u turu cogo la ani nɔgɔ ni nɔgɔdingεw dilanni fana la. N bε taa nakɔw ni forow kɔnɔ tuma ni tuma ka kuma nin fεnw kan.

Good question! I am a natural resource management volunteer. I work with farmers and gardeners. I advise people on good ways of planting and taking care of the trees. I help people in finding tree seeds, planting seeds and compost and making compost piles. I go to the fields and gardens from time to time to talk on these.

Amadu

Ayiwa! Ne hakili la, n y’i ka baara faamu sisan. Ala k’i dεmε. Okay! I think, I understand your job now. May god help you.

Te wulicogo

How to make tea

Wulifεnw/Ingredients

  1. te

    tea leaves

  2. sukaro

    sugar

  3. nanaye

    mint

  4. ji

    water

Teminεnw/Tools

  1. barada

    tea pot

  2. furunε

    stove

  3. finfin

    charcoal

  4. wεriw

    glasses

  5. pilato

    plate

Wulicogo/The processes

  1. N’i bε te wuli, i bε fɔlɔ ka

    To make tea, first:

  2. Tasuma ɲaga, o kɔ i bε te kε barada kɔnɔ.

    Light the fire, then put tea in the tea pot.

  3. I bε ji wεri ɲε naani ni tila k’a la.

    Put four glass of water and half in it.

  4. O kɔ i bε barada sigi tasuma kan. I b’a wuli miniti bisaba kɔnɔ.

    Then put the tea pot on the fire and boil it for half an hour.

  5. Tuma kelen kelen, i b’a jigin ka teji kε barada wεrε kɔnɔ.

    From time to time pour it in the other tea pot.

  6. O kɔ, i bε sukaro k’a la. I bε sɔrɔ k’a suuru wεriw kɔnɔ walasa ka sukaro yelen teji la.

    After that put sugar in it in the second tea pot and pour it in the glasses to mix it up.

  7. O kɔ, i b’a nεnε ni sukaro y’a bɔ. I bε teji yεlεma barada kɔnɔ tuguni.

    Then you taste it if there is enough sugar.

  8. I b’a kalaya dɔɔni.

    Heat the mixture a little bit.

  9. Mɔgɔ caman bε teji dɔ to wεri kelen kɔnɔ walasa ka musi dila n’o ye wεri tɔw kɔnɔ.

    Lot of people make foams with the glasses.

  10. I bε tila ka wεriw kɔ sananko.

    Clean the external side of the glasses.

  11. Te mana kalaya dɔɔni, i b’a tila wεriw ni ɲɔgɔn cε k’a di mɔgɔw ma.

    When it gets warm then serve it.

  12. Segin bε kε ni kan fo siɲε saba.

    We do the same processes for all the three rounds.

  13. Siɲε fila tɔw la i bε se ka nanaye k’a la.

    You can also add mint in it.

  14. Temugu ni ji hakε bε yεlεma mɔgɔw hakε kɔsɔn.

    The quantity of water an tea leaves depends on the number of peple drinking tea.

SIGIYƆRƆ KUNNAFONNIW

GETTING INFORMED ABOUT ONE’S AREA

Communicative Task:

NSANA

PROVERB

Dugu bila ka fisa lada wuli ye!

Look for the meaning of this proverb and try to use it appropriately

DIALOG

Musa

Eh! John, i ni faama!
Hey! John, It’s been a long time!

John

Musa, i ni waati. I bε di?
Musa, it’s while. How are you?

Musa

Alhamudulilayi! I bε dugu jumεn na sisan?
Thanks to God! In which village are you now?

John

N sigilen don le/lo Jitumu mara la, Keleya kεrεfε.
I am in Jitumu area, next to Keleya.

Musa

Keleya lamini duguw ye dugu kɔrɔw ye.+ The villages around Keleya are old villages.

John

Tiɲε don! Dugutigi ko: ale ka dugu in tutigε tuma mεnna kɔsεbε.
That’s true! The chief said It’s been a very long time they settled here.

Dugu in sigira ka kɔn Tubabu fanga ɲε.
The village was settled before the white men’s arrival.

Musa

Ha! O ye dugu kɔrɔ ye. Siya jumεnw bε yen?
Ha! That’s an old village. What are the ethnic groups there?

John

Siya caman. Bamananw ka ca ni siya tɔw ye Jitumu mara kɔnɔ. Fulaw ni Maninkaw fana sigilen bε yen. Siginfεw bε sɔrɔ yen, i n’a fɔ Korokow, Marakaw, Kɔrɔbɔrɔw, Dongɔnɔw ani siya wεrεw.
Lot of ethnic groups. Bambaras are more than the others in jitumu. Fulfuldes and malinkes are there too. Some immigrated like Korokos, Sarakoles, Sonraïs, Dogons and others.

Musa

O ye siya caman ye. I ye yen mɔgɔya kεcogo bεε faamu ka ban?
That’s a lot of ethnic groups. Did you understand all the ways people behave?

John

Dɔɔni dɔɔni. Nka yirikurun mεn o mεn ji la, a tε kε bama ye. N bε ka ladaw ni korɔw ɲεɲinin.
Little by little. But as long as a piece of wood stays in water, it will never become a crocodile. I am still learning some customs.

Musa

Ayiwa! O de ka ɲi. Ala k’i dεmε.
Okay! That’s good. May God help you.

John

Amiina! K’an bεn!
Amen! See you!

JAMA HAKILI JAKABƆ

LEADING A COMMUNITY MEETING

Communicative Task:

NSANA

PROVERB

Jεkafɔ ye damu ye!

Look for the meaning of this proverb and try to use it appropriately

DIALOG

John

A’ ni wula yankaw, an tilenna hεrε la, Ala k’an si hεrε la.
Good afternoon people from here, we spend the day in peace, may we spend the night in peace.

Jeliba

Nba! A ni wula, aw bisimila! A ye dɔ di.
Nba! Good afternoon, welcome! Say something.

John

Saha! An ma na baasi la, an ye Saniya baarakεlaw ye. An nana walasa an bε se ka hakilina falen falen dugu saniya cogo kan.
Thanks! We aren’t here for wors, we are sanitation workers. We are here to exchange ideas about the village sanitation.

Jeliba

Dugutigi, ayiwa kuma tε! U ko, k’u nana k’an dεmε ka dugu saniya.
Dugutigi, so here is the topic! They said, they’re here to help us with the village sanitation.

Dugutigi

Jeliba, a fɔ dunanw ye: k’u nali diyar’an ye. K’u bisimila!
Jeliba (Griotman), tell them we appreciate them being here. Welcome!

John

Gεlεya jumεn bε yan saniyako la?
What are the sanitation problems here?

Amadu

Ne bε kuma ɲinin.+ I ask to talk.

Jeliba

Kuma b’i bolo, Amadu.
You have the floor (the speech) Amadou.

Amadu

Ne hakili la, ɲaman ani jinɔgɔko gεlεya de b’an kan bi.
I think we have problems with dirty water and trash here.

John

Kuma ɲεna! Aw hakili la fεrε jumεnw bε se ka sɔrɔ olu la? (makan caman….)
Good! According to you what are the solutions for those? (noise)

Jeliba

A ye hakεto, an ka ɲɔgɔn lamεn!
Please, let’s listen one each other!

Bakari

Baasi tε, ne hakili la, ni bεε bε se ka taa ɲaman bɔn dugu kɔfε yɔrɔ kelen na, o bε fisaya. Ani fana, an k’an hakili to ji saniyali la.
That would be better. And also let’s keep in mind water sanitation. Ok, for me, if every one can go put the trash behind the village in the same place

John

Yankaw, anw hakili la, bεε ye famuya sɔrɔ tɔnsigi in kɔnɔ. Aw ni ce, aw ni baraji! Ala k’an bεn a ɲɔgɔn wεrε ma. Sisan an b’a fε ka sira ɲinin.
We think, everyone has understood something about the meeting. Thank you! May we meet again. Now we want to leave.

NSIIRIN: SUNGURUNNIN YE JƆN TA YE?

NSIIRIN NAAMU !!!

N y’a da kamalennin saba la!

Sungurunnin ye jɔn ta ye? Kamalennin saba tun bε to ka kε ɲɔgɔn fε. U nana sungurunnin kelen sɔrɔ. Dɔ ko, “An bε taa yaala. N’an ye wari sɔrɔ, an bεna fini san k’a don le/lo sungurunnin kan na.” U taara yaalayaala. Dugalen tun bε dɔ fε. Sabara tun bε dɔ fε. Fura tun bε dɔ fε. Tile dama tεmεnnen kɔ, dugalentigi y’a fɔ ko: “Ne bε filεlikε n ka dugalen na.” A ye filεlikε k’a ye ko sugurunnin sara. A ko: “Sugurunnin sara!” Sabaratigi ko:”A ye na sisan. An bε jε k’an senw don le/lo sabara la. An bεna se yen sisan, janko an bεna sungurunnin su sɔrɔ k’a don.” Furatigi ko: ”N’an sera yen sisan, a bεna kunu.” U jεra k’u senw don le/lo sabara la. U sera sungurunnin ka dugu la. Furatigi taara sungurunnin lakunu. A ɲεnamayara kokura ka kε mɔgɔ ye. Dugalentigi ko k’ale ta don. Sabaratigi ko k’ale ta don. Furatigi ko k’ale ta don. O kamalennin saba la, sungurunnin ye jɔn ta ye?

N y’a ta yɔrɔ min, n y’a bila yen!

— Mamadou Kanté

NSIIRIN: DOSOKƆRƆ, BAKƆRƆNIN NI SAGAJIGIBA KA DUGUTAA.

NSIIRIN NAAMU !!!

N y’a da dosokɔrɔ, bakɔrɔnin ni sagajigiba la!

Fɔlɔ-fɔlɔ, dosokɔrɔ, bakɔrɔnin ni sagajigiba tun ka di kɔsεbε. Su t’u fara, tlen t’u fara. Don dɔ, barosen fε, bakɔrɔnin y’a fɔ tɔ fila ye n’u bε se ka taa dunuya yaala walasa ka nafolo sɔrɔ. O yɔrɔnin kelen na, u ye taamadon da. O don le/lo selen, u jεra ka dugu taamobili kelen ta. U selen dugu fɔlɔ min na, dosokɔrɔ ko k’ale bε jigin ye. A jiginna, ka wari di mobili bolila ma. Mobilitigi kɔrɔtɔ kojugu wulila ni mobili ye ka sɔrɔ a ma warimisεn segin dosokɔrɔ ma. Dosokɔrɔ bolila mobili kɔ, ka kule ka dεsε. Mobilitigi ma jɔ. A tɔɲɔgɔn fila dimina fo k’a dama tεmεn. Dugu filanan na, bakɔrɔnin ko k’ale bε jigin yen. Mobili jɔ, bakɔrɔnin ye fiɲε minεn. A taara, a ma wari sara. Sagajigiba kelen tora mobili kɔnɔ ŋunuŋunu na. A y’i miiri bakɔrɔnin ka kεwale la. A ko k’ale bε fεrε ɲinin waasa a kana kε somɔgɔ sama ye n’u sera dugu sabanan kɔnɔ. Sow ni kungo cε, sagajigiba ko k’ale sera. A jiginna, k’a ka wari sara. A k’ale na don le/lo dugu kɔnɔ hɔrɔnya la barisa mɔgɔ ka juru t’ale la. Kabini o don le/lo fo bi: E dosokɔrɔ tε mobilitigi tεmεn tɔ ye n’a ma kule o la! Bakɔrɔnin kegunya kojugu tε jɔ bolimafεn ɲε! Faɲa ye sagajigiba bila siraba kan taama na, a tε sira bolifεn ɲε, barisa maa ka juru t’a la!

N y’a ta yɔrɔ min, n y’a bila yen! Mamadou Doudou NDOYE

NSIIRIN: KUNGOSOGOW KA DENKUNDI.

NSIIRIN NAAMU !!!

N y’a da suruguba ni sonsannin la!

Waraba muso jiginna. A ye kungosogow bεε fara ɲɔgɔn kan denkundi la. U ko sogo bεε ka dɔnsen kelen kelen kε. Ni min ta ɲεna, misi bε di o tigi ma. Misi kofɔlen, surukuba fora ka wuli k’ale fɔlɔ bε dɔnkε. Suruku y’i dɔn k’i dɔn fo k’a wɔɔsi. Waraba den ma yεlε, a ba ma yεlε. Suruku ka dɔn ma diya mɔgɔ si ye. Kɔnɔsogonin fana wulila. O fana y’i dɔn. O ka dɔn diyara bεε ye. Waraba muso yεlεla ka yεlε. U bεε nison diyara. U ye misi di kɔnɔsogonin ma. Misi dilen kɔnɔsogonin ma tuma min na, surukuba girinna ka wuli, ko ale denkε fɔlɔ ye kɔnɔsogonin ye. Bεε ko: “Ee! Suruku den bε se dɔn na! A bε se dɔn na! ” O kεlen tuma min na, kɔnɔsogonin y’i sigi. Waraba den kasira ko kɔnɔsogonin ka wuli ka dɔnkε tuguni. Kɔnɔsogonin wulila, nka a dɔnkεtɔ sen cunna waraba den kan kan, k’a faga. Waraba muso kulela ko ka kɔnɔsogonin minε. O fɔlen, kɔnɔsogonin ye kεnε minε. U m’a sɔrɔ. Sonsannin ko: “A ma tiɲε! Ni kɔnɔsogonin ma sɔrɔ, a y’a fa minε. O fɔlen, suruku k’ale den tε! Barisa kɔnɔ ni wara tε kelen ye. Kama b’a la, kama t’ale la. Kɔnɔsogonin sen ye fila, sen naani b’ale suruku fε. Mun y’ale ni kɔnɔsogonin kε kelen? N’u ka misi kama don, le/lo u bε se k’o minε. ” Surukuba y’a dɔn k’a tε ɲε cogo si la n’ale ma minε. Suruku y’u to mankan na ka fiɲε minε. A ye gɔngɔn wuli, ka bobilen kalanman seri waraba muso ɲεda la. U ye surukuba fana ɲinin ka dεsε. Sonsannin tεmεtɔ ye kɔrɔ suruku ɲε bilen ye tu la. Sonsannin ko: “Ee, n kɔrɔ, e ni kɔnɔsogonin tε siya kelen, munna e bolila?” Surukuba y’a jaabi k’ale taalen, jɔn minεna ale kɔ.

N y’a ta yɔrɔ min, n y’a bila yen!

NSIIRIN: BAMA NI FALI.

NSIIRIN NAAMU !!!

N y’a da bama ni fali la!

Don dɔ bama bɔra ji la k’a bε taa i senna yaala. A taara fo yɔrɔ jan. A segin tuma, a filila sira ma, a munumununa ka munumunu. A sεgεnnen taara i da jalasunba dɔ kɔrɔ. Fali nana se bama ma jalasunba kɔrɔ. Fali kabakoyara, a ko bama ma: “εε! N dɔgɔ mun y’i se yan bi? Yan ni baji ka jan dε!” Bama ko fali ma: “N kɔrɔ ne yεrε tε se ka foyi fɔ nin ko in na bilen. N taara n senna yaala, n tununna, n t’a dɔn n bε segin so cogo o cogo.” Fali ko a bε taa so tuma min, bama y’a fɔ a ye “n kɔrɔ, kana nin kε ne na, i bε taa cogodi ka ne to yan? I b’a lajε ka n lase bada la.” Fali k’o tε baasi ye; a gεrεla bama la, bama yεlεnna fali kɔ la. U selen dankan na fali ko bama ka jigin nga bama y’a fɔ fali ye k’a k’i jija ka se n’a ye ji cεmancε la. U selen ji cεmancε la bama jiginna, a y’i da fa fali kɔsen na o yɔrɔ bεε. Fali ko a ma: “Aah e jo don, le/lo ne de jalaki don.” Bama y’a jaabi: “I kεra jalakitigi ye o, i kεra jotigi ye o, nin si tε ne ka sira ye, ne bε e dun bi.” K’u to kuma na nsonzanin nana; a ko: “n kɔrɔ fali! Fo ji cεmancε la tan! Mun kεra? ” Fali y’a jaabi ko: “Ne ɲuman kεtɔ de kεlen bε kara ye ne da la. Bama tununna, ne y’a dεmε ka na ji la. A selen ji la, a ye ne minε k’a bε ne dun.” Nsonzanin y’i min k’i kanto fali ma yɔrɔ jan fε: “N kɔrɔ fali, i tε se k’i puruti wa?” Fali ko: “N bε se kε!” Fali y’i pan ka bama tan a da la fo ka bama yεlεma a kɔ kan. Fali bolila ka taa so.

N’i ye maa min ka sumun furakε, o b’i ka tigasi ɲimi.

N y’a ta yɔrɔ min, n y’a bila yen!